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Form No. 471 

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in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 






Meal Estate and Financial Agents, 


48 Broad Street, New York; Front Street, Wilmington. 




Real Estate and Financial Agents. 

Established for the purpose of negotiating the sale of Southern lands of all 

descriptions, and other property; also to induce Immigration, organize 

joint stock companies, negotiate loans, etc. etc. 

Principal Offices located at Wilmington, N. C, and 48 Broad 
Street, New York. Branch offices will be established in other 
cities of the North and South. 


We would respectfully state to capitalists and others desiring' 
profitable investments in real estate, mining, or manufacturing 
interests, timber lands, water power, etc., that we are prepared 
to offer them greater inducements than can elsewhere be found. 

The principal fact which led to the establishment of this 
agency was the existence in the South of so many very important, 
and, in most cases, wholly undeveloped resources, which for 
their proper development require capital, and which, by such 
development, would undoubtedly result in great prosperity and 
wealth. The capital, in abundance, is in the North, seeking 
opportunities of profitable investment, while the opportunities, in 
like abundance, are in the South, awaiting the capital. What is 
now needed is a means of bringing them together. This our 
Agency proposes to furnish. 

We are also prepared to negotiate loans upon the best of securi- 
ties, and at liberal rates of interest. There are numerous indus- 
tries in the South which are crippled, to a great extent, for the 
want of a little more capital. Loans can readily be negotiated 
upon abundant security, bearing interest at from ten to fifteen 



per cent, per annum. We invite attention to this branch of our 

It is our intention to publish, at an early day, a catalogue of 
lands and other properties placed in our hands for sale; and also 
to solicit from all who desire to see a complete schedule of such 
properties, permission to place them in our lists, in order to 
exhibit, as completely as possible, a classified statement of mill 
sites and mill properties, iron mines, gold mines, timber tracts, 
and other conspicuous properties, to which the attention of 
capitalists is invited. 

This catalogue will be frequently corrected and extended, 
making a new issue at intervals of not more than two months, 
and it will therefore be a reliable guide to the development of 
all the properties to which it will refer. 

For copies of these Catalogues, please address, at Wilmington 
or New York, 


Hon. Horatio Seymour, 
George Davis, 
Wm. A. Graham, 
Thomas Bragg, 
Z. B. Vance, 
W. N. H. Smith, 
Asa Biggs, 
H. T. Clarke, 
R. P. Ranney, 
H. C. Calkins, M. C m 
F. E. Shober, M. C, 

C. B. Brooks, Judge U. S. Dist. Court, 

D. W. Bagley, 
Col. R. H. Cowan, Pres't W., C. & R. R. R. Co., Wilmington 
Hon. R. R. Bridgers, Pres't W. & W. R. R. Co., Wilmington 

" Jesse R. STtrBBS,Pres't Wil. & Tar. R.R. Co., Williamston 

D. P. Eells, Esq., Pres't Com. Nat. Bank, 

E. E. Burrtjss, Esq., Pres't 1st National Bank, 
J. Drexel, Esq. (of Drexel and Co., Bankers), 
James Dawson, Esq., Banker, 
S. N. Kenyon, Esq., Cashier Citizens' Nat. Bank, Fulton, N. Y. 

Maj. Joseph A. Englehard, Editor Wilmington Journal. 

Utica, N. Y. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Hillsboro " 

Raleigh " 

Charlotte ' ' 

Murfreesboro, N. C. 

Tarborough, N. C. 
ic it 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
New York. 
Salisbury, N. C. 
N. C. • 
Williamston, N. C. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wilmington, N. C. 


Capt. John S. Dancy, Ed. Reconstructed Farmer, Tarborough. 

Gen. W. W. Harllee, Mars Bluff, S. C. 

" CO. Looms, Coldwater, Mich. 

Col. Henry A. Gilliam, Edenton, N. C. 

" E. D. Hall, Wilmington, N. C. 

" J. S. Cannon, Norfolk, Va. 
H. B. Short, Esq., late Pres't Green Swamp Co., N. C. 

Messrs. A. G. Cattell & Co., Philadelphia. 

" D. K. Hotjtz & Co., " 

" Rowland & Ervien, " 

" Samuel Bolton & Co., " 

" Kenton, Potter & Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

C B. Hancock, Esq. (of Kingsbury, Abbott Co.), New York. 



General advantages arising from the position of North 

Carolina 5 to 7 

Configuration and General Surface 7 to 9 

Forests of North Carolina 9 to 13 

The soil of North Carolina generally 13 to 17 

Sandy soils of the Pine Lands 18 

The Middle District ; the Piedmont Lands 19 to 21 

The mountain and valley soils of the western part 21, 22 

Staple Crops : Cotton 22 to 24 

Rice 24 

Indian Corn 25, 26 

The Wheat Crop 26 

Other grains : Peas, Potatoes, etc 27, 28 

Fruits, Grapes, Wine, and Market Gardening 28 to 32 

Garden Products 32 

The Ground Pea, or Peanut 33 

Mineral Resources of North Carolina 34 

Iron Ores and Iron Works 35 to 38 

Gold Mines 39 to 43 

Silver Mines 44 

Copper 45, 46 

List of the principal Gold, Silver, and Copper Mines 47 to 53 

Silver Mines 50 

Copper Mines 50, 51 

Lead, zinc, etc 51 

Chromic Iron 52 

Iron Pyrites 52 

Graphite, or Plumbago , 53 

Mica 53 

Diamonds 53 

Limestone, Marble, Building Stone, etc 54 to 58 

Marble 55 

Granites and Building Stone 56 

Grindstones and Whetstones 57 

Millstones 57 

Serpentine 58 

Roofing and Flagging Slates .,,,., 58 



Soapstone 58 

Fire-Clay ; Porcelain Clay 59 

Bituminous and Oil-bearing Shales 59 

Native Mineral Fertilizers : Marl and Phosphates 59 to 62 

Mineral Springs 62, 63 

Watering Places of the Atlantic Coast 64 

Mountain Scenery 65 

Linville Falls 67 

Rivers, Falls, and Water-power 68 to 73 

Number of Cotton and Woolen Mills, etc 72 

Power-manufacturing in North Carolina 73 to 75 

Number of the Principal Mills, etc 74 

General Development of Manufactures 75 to 78 

Table of Manufactures, all classes 76 

Tobacco Manufacture 77 

Tanneries 77 

Turpentine Manufactures 77 

Lumber and Shingles 78 

Cost of Labor 79, 80 

Table of Prices of Farm Labor 79 

The Trade of Wilmington 80, 81 

Exports Coastwise 80 

Exports Foreign 81 

Kailroads and Internal Communication 82 to 86 

List of Principal Eailroads 83 to 84 

Freights and Sea Transportation 86 

Fisheries and Fowl Shooting of the Coast 87 to 90 

Duck Shooting on the Sound 89 

The Climate of North Carolina 90 to 95 

Table of Temperatures 93 

Table of Average Quantities of Rain 94 

Proportion of Improved and Unimproved Land 95 to 100 

Review of the Agricultural Resources of the State 100 to 103 

Availability of the Coal of Deep River 105 to 107 

Sentiments of the People 107 to 106 

Convention of Railroad Presidents, etc 110 to 114 

The Changed System of Labor 114 to 116 

Adjacent States 116 


North Carolina is conspicuous among the States of the 
Atlantic seaboard for advantages of position calculated to 
develop every feature of its natural wealth. Whatever it may 
produce through its fertility of soil, its abundant growth of 
timber, or its extensive mineral deposits, is within easy reach 
of the best markets, and can be forwarded by the cheapest 
modes of transportation. Facilities for cheap production are 
also remarkably abundant. Machinery can easily be sent to 
any point; the properties of every sort — land, water power, 
timber, and mines — are all purchasable at very reason- 
able rates; labor is cheaper than in any other State of the 
Union, east or west, and all these materials and appliances 
can be handled by an owner or capitalist residing in any one 
of the States north of it without such risk of loss or waste as 
is inevitable in attempting to own, hold, or work productive 
property in the new Western States. These are most import- 
ant facts, to be put in the foreground of any statement of the 
resources and merits of North Carolina, in considering its 
new and important relation to the business interests of the 
people of the States north of it. 

North Carolina holds a position of equal advantage as re- 
gards its climate. It has that better phase of the temperate 
climates belonging in Europe to Italy and to Spain, giving it 
the capacity to produce half tropical products, while it is still 
exempt from tropical unhealthiness, and from the excess of 
heat or of moisture belonging to the Gulf Coast of the United 
States. Cotton is abundantly grown over nearly half the 
surface of the State, and the low country of the southeastern 


part is as rich in productions of the warm climates as any 
part of the coast south of it; yet all parts of even this low 
country are conspicuously healthy. Stretching westward the 
country rises, first in rolling lands, of admirable adaptation to 
general tillage, and next into mountains, inclosing valleys of 
great comparative elevation, and of the purest air, and most 
perfect adaptation to all the growths of Western Pennsylvania 
and Western New York. The climate, in fact, really merges 
the almost tropical southeastern coast, with the Italian soft- 
ness of the interior, and the temperate freshness of the moun- 
tains and the west. No other State of the Union has so great 
diversity, nor has any considerable diversity within such easy 
reach by ready means of communication. 

In a more detailed account given in another part of this 
paper we show what the precise conditions of climate are 
in various parts of the State, and how strikingly the positions 
outlined here are sustained by the recorded facts. 

Geographically, therefore, North Carolina is a half-way 
house for the Seaboard States, at any point of which the 
business man and business enterprises of the East are practi- 
cally at home. Transportation of cotton, grain, lumber, iron, 
fruits, and vegetables is quite as easy to Baltimore, Philadel- 
phia, and New York, as from Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Buf- 
falo. The sailing vessels and steamer lines of the Atlantic 
Coast offer cheap and prompt transportation, and, aided by the 
interior railroads of North Carolina, they bring the whole 
section tributary to Wilmington as near to New York as 
Central Ohio is. This fact alone should concentrate attention 
on the natural wealth of the State, but when we add to it the 
difference of climate, which is as if the spring were to open 
nearly three months earlier, and fruits were to ripen in Ohio 
when they were blossoming in New York, we have a new 
value given to the productive lands, which it is reasonable to 
estimate at twice what they would otherwise be worth. 

Every product of the soil is now of higher value and of 
greater interest than at any previous time. Yegetables and 
fruits are merchandise, to be produced, shipped, handled, and 
sold by wholesale, as commercial products. The changes of 
a few years in this respect are astonishing, and they add enor- 


mously to the value of the lands of the South, especially of 
the seaboard from Norfolk southward. Norfolk has for a few 
years been conspicuous in producing early fruits, but it is 
really too far north, and Wilmington has much the better 
position. The difference between Norfolk and Wilmington 
in the advance of the seasons is twenty-one days, a difference 
so great as to give the latter overwhelming advantages in 
everything that relates to early cultivation. 

We have, therefore, a district of almost tropical capacity of 
production within easy reach of the daily business of the East. 
The number of active men free to choose a profitable opening 
to new business is very great, and they are looking eagerly 
for new fields of enterprise. Her mining States are far less 
attractive now than they were three or five years ago : heavy 
losses, distant fields of labor, and painful inability to control 
surrounding circumstances, and prevent losses, crowd the 
whole history of investment in the West. In the new east of 
the Southern States it need not be so. A moderate capital suf- 
fices to obtain absolute control of a large tract of land, of fine 
water power, and of productive mines. Neither in the origi- 
nal purchase, nor in the subsequent management, are large 
sums required. Valuable products are ready for market 
almost at the outset, and the purchaser can bring cargoes of 
shingles, lumber, ores, or fruits, to eager markets, almost as 
soon as his possession is secured. 

With this general reference to the advantages of North 
Carolina, resulting from its geographical position, its climate, 
and its intrinsic capacity for production, we proceed to give 
full information on each branch of these interests in detail, 
and we ask every reader to follow us, confident that we have 
embodied facts, not only of interest in themselves, but that 
will show new and attractive openings for business enter- 

The General Surface of North Carolina 

Is conspicuously fairer to the first impression of a visitor than 
any of the Seaboard States north of it, in consequence of the 
finer growth of its forests, and the number and depth of its 
indenting bays and navigable rivers. While the low eastern 


lands of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia ex- 
hibit a comparatively short growth of pine and other timber, 
the plains of North Carolina are covered with fine and lofty 
pines, and the swamps abound with the largest growths of 

Access to every part of the lowlands is also afforded by 
the rivers and bays, all of which are navigable for vessels of 
sufficient capacity to carry lumber, grain, and every form of 
produce directly and cheaply to northern markets. By refer- 
ence to the map, these advantages of water communication 
are very apparent. Leaving Wilmington in either direction, 
for instance, forty or fifty miles of railway will touch on the 
head of some of the fairest bays to be found in the world, 
communicating both with the ocean and with the interior, 
and enabling business establishments handling the heaviest 
goods to attain the greatest economy in freights inward and 
outward. Waccamaw Lake, on the south of Wilmington, 
is peculiarly favored in this respect, and the finest cedar, 
cypress, and pine abound in the forests near its shores. 

As the rolling lands further westward are reached, the 
scene is varied and attractive. There is little waste land, and 
nothing bare of valuable products — timber, if unopened, and 
valuable crops, if the land has been cleared. Less of waste 
surface, and of the often-prevailing stretches of land once cul- 
tivated and afterward abandoned, is visible in North Carolina 
than in any other State south of Maryland. 

Still farther inland, the splendid mountain scenery of the 
Blue Eidge and adjacent ranges rises before the visitor, offer 
ing a succession of green hills, with intervening valleys, 
which never fail to interest the most superficial observer, and 
which reward the closest examination with evidences of uni- 
versal fertility. The general aspect of this upper part of the 
State is attractive in the highest degree. Fruit cultivation 
and grazing here attain greater perfection than in any other 
part of the Alleghany range. Orchard fruits, particularly, 
exhibit a degree of perfection not exceeded by the best 
in Western New York or Pennsylvania. Upland valleys of 
this district are well known when cited as belonging to East 
Tennessee, but in North Carolina, bordering the whole eastern 


line of Tennessee, the same conformation exists, and the same 
advantages are found, with the addition of much more ready 
access to Raleigh, Wilmington, and Norfolk. 

The elevation of this western part of the State is, in fact, 
greater than that of East Tennessee, and the climate is greatly 
modified in consequence. Quite a large area west of the 
Blue Ridge, from which the French Broad and other rivers 
cut their way, and drain the western tier of counties into the 
Tennessee valley, will average two thousand feet above the sea, 
a good share of it being table-land 2500 feet above the sea. 
East of the Blue Ridge, the fine valleys in which Danbury, 
Yadkinville, and Morganton are situated, are about 1500 feet 
above the sea, on an average. A railroad runs to Morgantown, 
and another to Lincolnton, both connecting with Charlotte, 
Salisbury, and Greensboro. The valley country of North 
Carolina is, in fact, if not quite as accessible as the celebrated 
"Valley of Virginia," scarcely less fertile or less attractive in 
any respect. 

Generally we claim for North Carolina that it is the richest 
and most attractive in its appearance among the States of the 
seaboard south of New York. Its water penetration, its 
forests on the plains, as well as on the mountains, and its 
noble mountain ranges with their intervening valleys, place 
it in the first rank not only for variety of resources, but also 
for the intrinsic value of these resources. 

The Forests of North Carolina. 

The peculiar value of the forest growths of North Caro- 
lina entitles them to consideration before almost anything 
else, because of the facility with which the timber and lum- 
ber they produce may be made a source of profit to the pur- 
chaser. Exhausted as the timber lands of the Northern States 
are, the demand for building and ship timber, for shingles, 
flooring lumber, and other varieties, must for many years be 
supplied from the South. North Carolina has the best, the 
greatest quantity, and the most readily accessible timber 
lands from which this supply can be obtained, and we pro- 
ceed to give such account of them as will enable the pur- 


chaser of lands there to put this class of his resources at once 
to use. 

In the eastern and lower counties of the State the most 
valuable trees are the long-leafed pine, the cypress and the 
cedar, all trees of magnificent growth, with trunks two to 
five feet in diameter, and forty to a hundred feet to the 
branches. This may seem an extreme statement, yet the 
facts are indisputable. General "W. A. Blount, of Beaufort 
County, describes his cypress lands, of many thousand acres, 
as bearing " cypress trees, averaging eight or ten in number 
per acre, from two and a half to four and a half feet in diame- 
ter at the stump, one hundred feet to the limbs, straight 
bodies, small bulky tops." These cypress trees generally 
grow in clusters, and they are found all over the swamp lands 
of the eastern counties. Where the swamps are deepest, and 
unreclaimable to agriculture, there are great quantities of fal- 
len cypress timber, easily raised, and as perfectly sound and 
available for any form of lumber or shingles, as if cut from 
standing trees. All the swamp lands from Norfolk south- 
ward were formerly covered with cypress and cedar, or as the 
last is usually called, juniper ; but the surface growth of the 
Dismal Swamp in Virginia is now almost wholly destroyed, 
and only that which was buried ages since in the peaty swamp 
earth, can now be got for timber. In the North Carolina 
swamps, however, the cedar and cypress are both abundant 
yet standing, while the mass of the peat and earth of the 
swamps yields incredible quantities of the finest timber when 
excavations are made. 

In excavating a canal through the Matamuskeet savanna 
lands, Mr. Euffm says : — 

" Such a quantity of dead but sound wood was found and removed, and 
which was at first left lying alongside, that it appeared to an eye-witness 
impossible to replace all the wood in the canal from which it had been 
taken." Mr. Ruffln also says (Sketches of Lower North Carolina, p. 
198) : "There are extensive bodies of cypress lands, owned by wealthy 
companies or individuals, who deem it more profitable to use the swamps 
to produce cypress shingles and timber, than to drain and clear any por- 
tion. The juniper trees are very valuable for furnishing shingles. Every 
deep burning of any portion of a juniper swamp exposes numerous dead 
but sound trunks, before buried and concealed, from which much shingle 
timber is obtained. Thus, though the great fires, which occur after almost 


every unusual drought, kill the living trees, and burn and destroy much of 
the upper earth also, they are often the cause of exposing much greater 
values in the before buried juniper trunks." 

In fact, the whole of the vast area of swamp lands of east- 
ern North Carolina, estimated at two millions of acres, is a 
great mine of valuable cedar and cypress timber, and the only 
practically inexhaustible store of this necessary element of 
supply to the Northern States. 

Growing with the cypress on the best lands bordering the 
swamps and bays of this lower district, there is also a fine 
tree called the black gum, two or three feet in diameter, and 
fifty feet to the branches, valuable for a great variety of pur- 
poses. Gigantic poplars are also intermixed, with laurel large 
enough for use as timber, and one or two varieties of water 

But the greatest timber trees of North Carolina are the 
pines, of which there are four or five conspicuous species. 
That first deserving notice is the Great Swamp pine, or the 
naval timber pine, a variety growing in a few localities on the 
borders of the sounds and bays. Magnificent timber of this 
species has been cut within a few years for naval purposes, and 
the few clumps and scattering trees tower far above the height 
of the surrounding forest whenever found. In a lot of seven- 
teen mast sticks, cut in Bertie County in 1856, one was 88 feet 
long, two 86 feet, four 80 feet, and six more 70 feet or over, 
varying from 20 to 36 inches square ; they measured from 
200 to 600 cubic feet in each stick, nearly all heart wood. 
It is unfortunate that but few of these groves remain, but 
being so conspicuous and so valuable, it was not to be ex- 
pected that they would escape notice and capture. "We are 
assured, however, that they are still frequent in the more 
secluded portions of the bay country. 

Next, away from the water border, come the great pine 
forests for which North Carolina is celebrated. They occupy 
all the sandy lands, the two great species being the long-leafed 
southern pine, and the yellow pine. The first-named is the 
turpentine tree, so long wastefully cut for the manufacture of 
turpentine and rosin. It grows on the poorest of the sandy 
soils, to an average of seventy feet high, with a trunk of 


nearly uniform diameter of twenty inches for about fifty feet, 
forming a beautifully straight columned series of forest arches, 
crowned with tufted summits, of leaves ten or twelve inches 
long. Such a forest is peculiarly attractive to a stranger, and 
it is as valuable for practical uses as it is picturesque and 
beautiful. Long seed cones, seven or eight inches in length, 
contain edible seeds. 

"For naval architecture the timber of this tree," Ruffin says, "is pre- 
ferred to that of all other pines." "The broad belt of land stretching 
through North Carolina, which has been covered by the long-leafed pine, 
except on the borders of rivers, is generally level, sandy, and naturally 
poor. Even if it had been much richer, and better for agricultural profits, 
the labors of agriculture would still have been neglected in the generally 
preferred pursuit of the turpentine harvest. But so great were the profits 
of labor, and even of the land, in the turpentine business, compared to 
other available products, that capital thus invested has generally yielded 
more profit than agriculture on the richest lands." (Ruffin.) 

North Carolina is the first State in which these splendid 
forests of long-leafed pine are found. A few specimens are 
found in Southampton and Nansemond Counties, Virginia; 
but almost immediately on entering North Carolina, the fine 
arched canopies of this splendid tree begin, and stretch in one 
unbroken belt across the State. Some of this timber has been 
injured by long tapping of the trees for turpentine ; but it is 
still of vast value in the aggregate, and it is so easy of access 
to cutting by mills on the rivers and bays, and the value 
placed on the lands themselves is so moderate, that great ad- 
vantages are offered to occupants who know how to put the 
whole tree to use, as well as to extract the turpentine. 

The remaining valuable species is the yellow pine, a fine 
tree in two or three counties in the northern part of the State. 
It is very valuable for flooring lumber, and it grows to a large 
size, with fine clear trunks. But it disappears as the more 
compact forests of long-leafed pine begin, and is only of 
secondary importance in the general appearance of the forests. 
There are two or three other species of pine in the State, but 
not important. The old field pines of the wasted lands, a 
small pine of the poorer swamps, and some instances of white 
pine in the mountains of the western part of the State. 

These are the most conspicuous forest growths of North 


Carolina that are accredited as "having commercial or busi- 
ness importance to new settlers. /But there are also very rich 
and varied forests in the rolling lands west of the pine plains, 
in which valuable timber of oak, walnut, chestnut, the gum 
trees, and man}, others may be found.' No part of the State 
is so bare of fine timber as the corresponding parts of Vir- 
ginia are. The oaks and other trees of the middle region, 
above the pine forests, are of magnificent growth, and in 
great variety. And in the mountainous counties of the west 
a singular forest phenomenon exists in the crowning balsam 
firs of several of the principal mountains. 'The Black Moun- 
tains of Buncombe County, north of Asheville, are the 
most couspicuous for this dense growth of black balsam firs. 
The Boan or Bald Mountains, west of this valley, and the' 
Balsam Mountains, southwest of Asheville, are the principal 
instances of this peculiarity, in addition to the first named. 

/The elevated districts of the western counties bring in the 
general forest variety of the Northern States, and the beech, 
maple, chestnut, linden, and similar treegi are almost as abund- 
ant as they are in Pennsylvania or New York. White pine is 
often found with a handsome growth, and forming trunks as 
large as in the Northern States. Although these peculiarities 
of forest growth in the western part-of the State are of less busi- 
ness or commercial importance than the pine and cypress of 
the east, they aid in proving the State distinction for pic- 
turesque and conspicuous forests, and a just preference for 
their beauty as well as for their value. 

The Soil of North Carolina. 

The soil of North Carolina must be relied upon as the 
principal and permanent basis of prosperity, however. There 
is, in the opinion of Edmund Ruffin and other intelligent 
writers on Southern agriculture, a marked superiority in the 
lands near the Atlantic coast, after entering North Carolina, 
over those of Virginia, at least. In the whole coast line from 
New Jersey southward, there is first a belt of swamp lands 
nearest the sea, and next a wide tract, generally level, sandy, 


and covered with pine timber, which extends westward to the 
edge of the rolling lands. In North Carolina both these belts 
are very large :/the swamp lands proper are estimated at two 
millions of acres, and the pine forest lands next to tbem are 
nearly as great in extent. And here it is proper to say, that 
what are called " swamp lands" are by no means irreclaim- 
able swamps. They are generally highly fertile, and not dif- 
ficult of reclamation. Professor Emmons, for many years 
State geologist, estimates their value, in a special report to the 
North Carolina Legislature, to be as great as that of four mil- 
lions of uplands. 

" We have no hesitation in saying that the two millions of swamp lands 
are worth four millions of upland. In a rough estimate of this kind we 
take time and expense of cultivation into the account — the time these 
lands endure without the use of expensive fertilizers, and the ease and the 
slight wear and tear of the instruments used in cultivation, when com- 
pared in the same list of expenses required in the cultivation of the up- 
land of the middle counties." (Report of State Geologist for 1860, p. 5.) 

As these swamp lands are the first encountered in entering 
the State from the north, by way of Norfolk, it may be well 
to describe them first. They have been the subject of ela- 
borate examination and report, by both Professor Emmons, 
and Edmund Euffin, of Virginia, the first in 1860, and the 
last in 1861. Remarkable peculiarities are presented in the 
soil of these tracts, and all observers agree that nothing has 
been found exactly like them, and nothing equal to them in 
fertility when reclaimed. 

The entire body of these lands is a vast plain, with open 
but shallow bays or lakes, and deep navigable rivers, every- 
where cutting through it. jMost of the land is only from four 
to ten feet above tide, though the interior of all the tracts 
rises, whether wet and an actual swamp, or dry and fully re- 
claimed, to the height of twelve, fifteen, and sometimes twenty 
feet. There is, therefore, always an ample descent to afford 
drainage when ditches or canals are cut. The materials which 
form the soil are, to a surprising extent, vegetable or organic 
matters, the proportion of sand, lime, or earths of any kind 
never exceeding one-half, and often not amounting to more 


than one-tenth. Emmons describes the general extent and 
appearance of these lands as follows : — 

"The lauds under consideration are confined to the eastern counties. 
They scarcely touch the long narrow sounds that skirt the Atlantic. 
Large bodies extend from fifty to one hundred miles from the ocean, and 
occupy wide belts not far from, and parallel with, the principal rivers. . . . 
The most northern swamp is a continuation of the Great Dismal, lying 
partly in Virginia and partly in North Carolina. . . . Numerous towns and 
hamlets are planted in it ; it is traversed by roads, and few in passing 
through this section of the country would suspect that they were in this 
swamp, famous the world over for its ominous name. The largest terri- 
tory of swamp lands lies in Washington, Tyrrel, Beaufort, and Hyde 
Counties. Its whole length is rather more than 75 miles from east to 
west, and at least forty -five in the widest part, from north to south. It lies 
between Albemarle Sound, the lower Roanoke River, and Pamlico Sound, 
Pamlico and Tar Rivers. . . . This great body differs from other swamps 
by a more uniform continuity, and a more perfect level, and with fewer 
knolls, called islands. Hyde County, for example, is as level as a house 
floor, or as a well constructed garden. It is but a few feet above tide. 
This swamp has four shallow lakes of considerable size ; the largest is 
Matamuskeet, which is twenty miles long. Lying a few feet lower than 
the swamp are tracts of a stiff clay soil, probably as good for wheat as any 
in the State. . . J The lands of this swamp have become famous for the 
large crops of coi*n they produce." 

Other tracts of these lands are described, one between the 
Pamlico and the Neuse Eivers, an eighth of the size of that 
described above ; another of great size, south of the Neuse, 
in Carteret and Jones Counties, " eighty thousand acres of 
which is the open prairie of Carteret," and the whole of which 
is 75 miles in length, east and west ; the Dover Swamp, fif- 
teen miles in length, is another; Holly Shelter Swamp, in 
ISTew Hanover County, and the Great Green Swamp, in Bruns- 
wick County. This embraces an immense area south of Wil- 
mington, and its connected portions reach to the southeastern 
corner of the State. 

(But the most remarkable feature of these swamp lands is 
their apparently inexhaustible fertility when reclaimed.-' 
Those in Hyde County are the most celebrated, and the cir- 
cle of plantations surrounding Matamuskeet Lake has been 
under cultivation for more than a century with undiminished 
crops, j The farm of Dr. Long, of Lake Landing, is cited by 
Professor Emmons, in 1860, as having been under cultivation 


for six generations, with an average product of 12 barrels of 
5 bushels each, or 60 bushels of corn per acre. Fourteen 
thousand plants to the acre are left to stand for the crop, and 
the growth is 12 feet high. Euffin says that the lands under 
tillage around Matamuskeet Lake, in 1860, amounted to fifty 
square miles, all of it " immensely rich, and very productive 
in corn ; the good land sells nearly for $75 to $100 per acre." 
He also declares that these lands are much superior to any 
similar lands in Virginia — drainage of the low, peaty, and 
swampy lands in that State, supposed to be similar, not hav- 
ing been successful in producing lands of permanent fertility. 
Next to these are the drained lands about Lake Scupper- 
nong, in Washington and Tyrrel Counties. This lake lies 
higher than Matamuskeet, being about twenty feet above tide. 
Yery rich and productive farms have been made around this 
lake. Euffin says : — 

" The principal production is Indian corn, which is doubtless the best 
adapted to this peculiar soil, and is therefore most sure and profitable. 
Wheat is grown to much less extent, and sometimes produces very heavy 
crops. Clover and cotton have both been found productive — a sufficient 
evidence of the soil being well drained. \Rice has also been made by dry 
culture, and as much has been made in that least productive mode as fifty 
bushels of rough rice to the acre. Tobacco has been tried and grew well ; 
but the cured leaves were deemed too coarse and thick." 

These swamp soils are singularly composed of vegetable 
matter, half formed into peat, yet capable of being rotted and 
reduced into the most fertile soils in the world. In some cases 
more than nine-tenths of the mass for a depth of ten feet, is 
vegetable or other organic matter, the accumulation of ages 
of growth and of partial decay. And by this long course of 
accumulation the surface has been elevated so much as to 
permit free drainage from the centre of the largest swamp 
outward. In all cases the central parts are higher, and beau- 
tiful lakes lie in these positions from which the cultivation 
spreads as drainage is perfected. Lake Scuppernong and 
Pungo Lake, in Washington and Tyrrel Counties, and Mata- 
muskeet Lake, in Hyde County, are the best illustrations of 
splendidly fertile soils reclaimed in this manner. Two samples 
of Hyde County soil are reported by Professor Emmons, con- 
taining from 60 to 75 per cent, of vegetable matter, and 15 to 


20 per cent, of fine sand. The lands and what they had pro- 
duced are thus described: — (y^ 

" The sample A was taken from an 80 acre field lying on the north shore 
of Matamuskeet Lake, and running back half a mile. This land has been 
in cultivation about 20 years, and produces now, in a fair crop year 10 to 
12 barrels (50 to 60 bushels) of corn to the acre. The sample B was taken 
from a 640 acre tract lying back of the 80 acre field. It has been in culti- 
vation five years, and produces, in a fair crop year, from 10 to 12 barrels of 
corn per acre. These lands lie between Matamuskeet and Alligator Lakes, 
four miles distant from Alligator River. Alligator Lake is said to be ten 
miles wide and fifteen long, and from three to five feet deep. It lies nearly 
in the centre of Hyde County. It is surrounded by a ridge from four to six 
feet above the sheet of water. The back lands are drained into Alligator 
River on the nort'h, and into Pamlico Sound on the south. The cultivated 
lands on the north side of Matamuskeet Lake run back about two miles, 
and are very uniform in quality. The north side is the best and deepest 
soil. Indeed, it may be said the county is a garden spot. It has a popula- 
tion of 5000 to 6000, and ships from 500,000 to 600,000 bushels of corn, 
and some 50,000 bushels of wheat per annum ; to which may be added a 
large quantity of peas, potatoes, etc." 

From this description of what has actually been done in the 
cultivation of the swamp lands of Hyde County, it is clear that 
there is a mine of wealth in these soils, as yet only begun to 
be opened. Prof. Emmons also says, that the " Hyde County 
soils show a capacity for endurance greater than the prairies 
of Illinois," and also, " as it regards health, Hyde County is 
no more subject to chills and fever than the country of the 
prairies." In fact, as we shall show in another place, all this 
so-called swamp region is singularly healthy, and has none 
of the diseases of swamp districts elsewhere. 

We have referred more at length to the coast lands of North 
Carolina than was necessary, perhaps, but it was due to the 
intrinsic merit they have, to show what wealth may be devel- 
oped from them, and to avert any prejudice that might be 
created by the usual language employed in describing them 
as swamp lands. In a word, the timber in the swamps still 
nndrained, and the inexhaustible richness of their cultivable 
soil when drained, put them in the front rank for productive 
value to the enterprising visitor. 


The Sandy Soils of the Pine Lands. 

The pine lands have not, so far, been so fully tested for ag- 
ricultural purposes as any other general section of the State, 
the reason being that the pine timber was too valuable to be 
cu«t away, and farming the turpentine was the most profitable 
pursuit. But it is a sufficient assurance that they have in- 
trinsic fertility to find the lofty growth of pine covering them 
everywhere, in their original State. When cultivated in the 
careless manner often found in the previous history of that 
section they are of course exhausted, and being laid out to 
"rest," the after-growth is by no means attractive, and their 
general appearance is calculated to lead to the belief that they 
cannot be made productive. But there can be no greater mis- 
take. The whole history of light and sandy lands is one well 
known : with care in cultivation they are always productive ; 
they are very cheaply and easily handled, and with the de- 
mand that now exists for early crops, they have a value they 
never had in competition with richer lands without early 
markets. The successful experience of thousands of cultiva- 
tors in New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, is one that will 
be repeated on an equally large scale on the long-leafed pine 
lands of North Carolina, and with the advantage of at least a 
month advance of the .season, giving a precedence in the sea- 
board city markets of just so much time. 

In the Northern States of the coast above referred to, the 
sandy tracts are almost always lightly timbered ; the short 
and inferior growth which covers them in New Jersey is par- 
ticularly well known. This short growth is really the best 
test Of want of intrinsic fertility. Where timber of a larger 
character will grow, the real fertility of the soil is propor- 
tionally greater. When, therefore, the timber which now 
covers them is removed, the lands, instead of being valueless 
for cultivation, will repay care almost as well as any others, 
and they will be peculiarly fitted to early market culture, in 
consequence of their light and sandy character. 


The Great Middle District: the Piedmont Lands. 

On the western border of the pine lands, a large and most 
important district begins, stretching westward to the foot of 
the Blue Ridge, and embracing an immense area. It is more 
than 200 miles in length from east to west, and it includes 
over 30 entire counties. It all belongs to what is called in 
Virginia, the Piedmont region, on the foot of the mountains, 
as distinguished from the eastern plains and the interior val- 
leys west of the Blue Ridge. But in North Carolina this belt 
is more than twice as wide as in Virginia, and it constitutes 
the greater part of the State under cultivation. 

It is a district of great capacity, and of that peculiar attrac- 
tiveness which is so well known further north. The surface 
is undulatory and varied, with many river valleys and much 
bottom land along them. Rich and productive farming lands 
abound, interspersed, however, with tracts on which cultiva- 
tion has been carelessly bestowed, and the usual proportion 
of washed and worn-out slopes maybe found, grown up, in 
places, to the old-field pines. But here, as in Virginia and 
Maryland, careful cultivation very soon restores them, and 
they have all the qualities of the light, easily worked, warm 
lands which are so readily made remunerative under careful 
cultivation in the south. 

Geologically this whole great district is one in which the 
stratification has been much disturbed by the forces which 
elevated the mountain chains, the rock ledges being turned 
up almost on edge, and quartz and other primary rock 
veins often showing at the surface. All these formations 
have been swept over by a powerful denuding force, which 
has crushed and carried away a vast amount of the earth and 
rocks. Scientific writers call it, therefore, the " denuded 
region." Its soils are peculiar, but with many belts of rich, 
red clay, deep loamy ridges, and light mixtures of clay and 
sand. The worst fault is the want of limestone, yet on the 
whole it is a very attractive and productive district. The 
careful Mr. Ruffm says of these lands :— 

" The lands of the Piedmont region (including all the surface here 
treated as part of the denuded region), in their natural state of fertility, as 


found when first settled by the white race and subjected to the tillage, 
were in general far more fertile than the great body of the lower drift 
formed lands. . . . Again, since the course of improvement and resuscita- 
tion has been begun, and has been extensively in successful progress in 
both regions, the lands of the denuded region have been found most 
capable of being enriched by putrescent manures alone, and restored to 
the productive condition." 

In fact the natural growths of grass and grain on these 
lands, being carefully preserved to put the waste and the 
manures again on the soil, afford the best and cheapest means 
of restoring them. /No form of expensive fertilizers is equal, 
for such soils, to the straw heap and the cattle yard accu- 
mulations. Soils of this class always require to be kept 
covered as much as possible, and to be laid down in clover 
or grass at frequent intervals. The climate of this part of the 
State, while not so favorable as in the West, by no means 
forbids clover cultivation, as we shall show in another place. 

This great middle belt will probably please Northern 
farmers more than any other part of the State. It has such 
variety of surface, with wo odlan ds of various sorts, groves, 
hills, water power at the rivers, as they descend the several 
steps to the sea level, and so much to satisfy the wish for 
varied cultivation that thousands will choose them for resi- 
dence. At the prices at which they are generally held, there 
is nothing more remunerative. Cotton can be tried for 
varietjr, while corn, wheat, and all the ordinary farm products 
of the Central States are unfailing staples. This section has 
been well compared with Northern Italy and Southern 
France, with the climate of which it strikingly corresponds, 
and it requires only skill in cultivation to develop almost 
every growth known in those attractive countries of Europe. 

But as we are here referring to the soil and surface more 
particularly, we will repeat that (there is no part of the Atlan- 
tic slope of the Alleghanies that affords greater advantages 
of soil than the belt, 200 miles wide, which in North Carolina 
stretches from the Blue Ridge mountain foot to the pine 
forests of the low country. /"Twenty thousand square miles 
of area are embraced in this generally uniform belt, the posi- 
tion of which is such that the soil will produce all temperate 
climate staples, and half those belonging to semi-tropical 


districts. • Going westward, there are several moderate steps 
of ascent, so that each, range of counties in succession affords 
some modification toward cooler uplands, but it is all the 
characteristic Piedmont soil, with upturned rock stratification, 
and rich belts interspersed with others of a poorer character. 
In the mild climate of North Carolina these soils are far 
more susceptible of being brought up to a high standard of 
productiveness than they would be even in Maryland, and 
they would be particularly tempting to a northern farmer, 
who has to struggle with refractory clays during the cold 
rains of May and June in the North. 

The Mountain and Valley Soils of the Western Part. 

West of the Blue Eidge lies the American Switzerland, an 
elevated mass of valleys and mountains, from which the rivers 
all run westward into Tennessee, no streams passing through 
the lofty Blue Eidge to the Atlantic. There are fourteen 
counties in this western section, and the loftiest mountains of 
the whole Alleghany range cluster around it on both sides. 
/The soils are the very best for grazing, and are characteristic 
Sof the plateau of the Alleghanies from New York southward, 
being formed of loam and drift, deeply abraded from slates, 
shales, and limestones. The river borders have fine and rich 
gravel flats, and the hill-sides are always green with grass. 

The forests of this western tier of counties show an abun- 
dant growth of the sugar maple, a tree characteristic of the 
best northern grazing lands, and of a temperate and healthy 
climate. (The valley will average 2000 feet above the sea at 
its lowest part, and the slopes of the mountains exhibit every 
variety of elevation above this to the mountain tops, averaging 
4000 feet for the chains generally, and 6500 feet for some 
twenty of the highest peaks. To show the cultivated pro- 
ducts of these counties, we append the results of the census 
of I860:— 




3ats and Rye. 

Cattle and 
Sheep. ' 

Butter and 

Ashe . . . 

3,500 bus. 

110,000 bus. 

100,000 bus. 


105,500 lbs 


. 25,000 






. 3,000 





Henderson . , 

. 7,000 






. 15,000 





Jackson . . 

. 18,000 





Macon . . . 

. 65,000 





Madison . . 

. 32 500 

23-;, 500 





. 14,000 






25,000 67,000 14,000 25,000 

The growth of corn is due to the number of river valleys, 
and among the products there is an aggregate, in the ten 
counties, of 138,000 bushels sweet potatoes, 36,000 pounds 
maple sugar, and $68,500 in value of orchard products. The 
climate and soil favor orchard fruits very much, and no part 
of the South will compare with it, while nothing at the North 
is superior. 

Staple Crops' Cotton. 

Though the grain crops of the State are very large, and 
more valuable in the aggregate, cotton has peculiar interest, 
and we place it first in order in consequence of the attractions 
it has for residents of districts where cotton is not grown. 
There is great capacity for cotton culture in North Carolina, 
and the experience of the most skilful farmers is that land 
may be fertilized so as to produce two, three, or even more 
bales to the acre, precisely as fertilization will produce corn 
or any other crop. Heretofore cotton lands have simply been 
cropped without any attempt to maintain their fertility, and 
when they would no longer produce enough to repay the cost 
of cultivation, they were thrown out as worthless. In the 
new era of management of soils at the South, cotton will be 
restored to thousands of tracts from which it has been dropped 
for the last fifteen or twenty years, and under the present 
remunerative prices it will be a crop worthy attention on many 
tracts where it is not now grown. 

In 1860 the total production of cotton in the State was 
145,514 bales, of 400 pounds each. The value of this crop 
now, at 25 cents net a pound, would be $1,455,140, a hand- 
some accession to the resources of the State for a year. Look- 
ing at the distribution of this crop for 1860, we find more or 



less cotton grown in two thirds of the counties. The follow- 
ing is a list of the chief cotton producing counties in which 
the quantities exceed 400 bales, and in the general table which 
we give elsewhere of the crops of 1860 as shown by the cen- 
sus, it will be seen what counties produced it then in quanti- 
ties less than 400 bales. 

Chief Cotton Growing Counties for 1860. 

Anson . 
Pitt . . 
Rowan . 
Bertie . 
Wake . . 
Cab arras 
Greene . 
Lenoir . 
Martin . 
Union . 
Wilson . 
Nash . 




Surry . . 




Jones . . 


Duplin . . 


Moore . . 




Gaston . . 


Orange . . 


Craven . . 




Chow an . . 




Iredell . . 


Cleveland . 






Stanley . . 




Person . 

























On examination, these cotton producing counties are found 
to be grouped around the leading rivers, and to be chiefly 
near the border of the sandy plains. The best district is on 
the northern border of the State in the valley of the Roanoke, 
where four counties produce 26,804 bales; next, four counties 
on the Tar River produce, in a somewhat larger area, 32.200 
bales. Edgecombe County, on this river, produces 19,138 
bales, which is the greatest production reported by any county. 
Together, these two river valleys in the northeastern part of 
the State produced over 60,000 bales of cotton in 1860. 

On the Neuse River the cotton product was 18,000 bales, 
while the counties through which the Cape Fear passes report 
much less. Six or seven counties on the Yadkin make up 


over 30,000 bales, and on the Catawba and Broad Rivers, fur- 
ther west, there was a considerable production. There are 
few counties, as we have said, that did not produce some cot- 
ton in 1860, and it is undoubtedly true that careful cultivation 
would greatly extend its range in the uplands, and add largely 
to the exportable product. 

It is a mistake to suppose that cotton cannot be grown in 
the general and varied farming which best maintains the fer- 
tility of the soil. In the North the rotation of crops which 
is invariable, is, more than anything else, the guaranty that 
the soil will not be exhausted. It is the "rest" which is 
needed, and which is infinitely preferable to laying out the 
lands in barren abandonment. It is safe to assume that with 
proper attempts to maintain the uplands, and with the open- 
ing of new tracts in the low country, the cotton crop of the 
State can be brought up to 250,000 bales as a reliable average. 

The great cotton market of the State, and to which a 
large quantity from South Carolina also comes for shipment, 
is Wilmington. In our notice of the commerce of Wilming- 
ton the facts will be fully given. 


The capacity of the low country of North Carolina for rice 
culture is much greater than is usually supposed. In 1860 
the whole State produced 7,593,976 pounds, four-fifths of 
which was in Brunswick County, but twelve or fifteen other 
counties produced a notable quantity. 


Brunswick 6,775,286 

Columbus ...... 170,595 

Duplin 110,204 

Sampson 87,977 

New Hanover, 69,049 

Pitt 54,103 

Eobeson 46,692 

Bladen 53,606 

Onslow 43,938 

Brunswick County is as perfect a rice district as any on the 
coast, and in this county and vicinity many of the most sue- 


cessful localities of northern capital and enterprise have been 

Upland or dryland rice is grown on the reclaimed swamp 
land of Hyde County and Albemarle. It is a branch of 
industry worth looking into, in view of its extension to other 
reclaimed lands of this coast. Mr. Ruffin says, in his valu- 
able " Sketches of Lower North Carolina," p. 239, that on the 
swamp lands of the Pamlico and Albemarle districts, in Hyde 
and Tyrrell Counties, " rice has also been made, by dry cul- 
ture, and, as much has been raised, in that least productive 
mode, as fifty bushels of rough rice to the acre." This im- 
portant fact in regard to the capacity of the drained lands, 
should not be neglected in estimating their value. 

Indian Corn. 

This is the great staple crop of the State, and almost its 
chief reliance alike for breadstuff's and for export, as the 
statistics of the census show. The corn grown at the South 
is well known for higher farinaceous qualities than that of 
the States in the latitude of New York. Containing less 
both of moisture and of oil in the kernel, it is admirably 
adapted for shipment to foreign countries, and for distant 
transportation generally. It never fails of a market, there- 
fore, and with the facility of reaching it at the various outlets 
by water and rail, the export of corn may always be relied 
upon as among the most certain and valuable. 

Indian corn is grown in every county of the State ; the 
river bottoms and lower slopes of even the mountain region 
yielding large and profitable returns. On the swamp lands, 
as we have before mentioned, the crop of corn is very heavy 
and constant. It has been grown for fifty to sixty years, in 
some cases, with but a very slight diminution of the product, 
or decrease of fertility. The lowest product on these lands is 
thirty bushels, and the highest near a hundred bushels per 
acre. Nothing can more forcibly convey the impression of 
vast productive capacity, than to see a cornfield of two or 
three hundred acres, on land as level as a floor, standing 
twelve feet high, and yielding when harvested twelve barrels 


or sixty bushels of corn to the acre. Yet such fields may be 
seen in the swamp lands of the northeastern part of the 
State now, while opportunity exists to drain and open vast 
areas to a like abundant production. 

Of course it is requisite to invest something in the prepa- 
ration of lands for such cropping as this, but with the cer- 
tainty that for half a century, almost, the store of vegetable 
matter in these soils would answer to the fullest draft upon 
it, without material weakness or exhaustion, there can be no 
more promising opening to a spirited farmer or capitalist. 

The corn crop of North Carolina in 1860 reached 30,078,564 
bushels, an increase over that of 1850 of 2,137,513 bushels. 
In 1867 it was estimated at only 17,967,000 bushels, but since 
the last census we cannot state with definiteness what the pro- 
duction has been. Probably it is now little or none in excess 
of 1860, in consequence of the hesitation of new cultivators 
to open their lands, and the unfortunate neglect of too many 
of the present occupants to improve and fertilize the tracts in 
their hands. Simultaneously with the inauguration of new 
enterprises, however, the dormant energies of all others will 
be brought into action, and this class of products will be 
brought out in constantly increasing abundance. 

It will be seen by reference to the census statistics of I860, 
that but ten States produced a larger aggregate, and in 1850 
only nine exceeded the production of this staple in North 

The Wheat Crop. 

It could scarcely be expected that the soils of this State 
would be especially adapted to wheat, yet the product in 
1860, was 4,743,706 bushels, distributed quite generally over 
the State. Even the drained swamp-lands produce wheat, 
though of course not so profitably. In the counties of the 
Albemarle and Pamlico districts, a good deal of wheat is 
grown, the counties surrounding these Sounds averaging 
20,000 bushels each, nearly, in 1860. The greatest production 
was in the central part of the State — Chatham, Davidson, 
and Eandolph Counties leading, with an average of about 
225,000 bushels each. Next, Granville, Orange, Alamance, 


Guilford, and Rowan, in the same vicinity, furnish 150,000 to 

200,000 bushels each. Even the mountain counties produce 
from 10,000 to 60,000 bushels each, showing that wheat may 
be successfully grown there also. 

Euffin says of the Albemarle swamp-lands, after speaking of 
their great production of Indian corn, that " wheat is grown to 
a much less extent, but often produces very heavy crops," 
(p. 239, Sketches of N. C). And again (p. 99) : ''Corn is the great 
crop of the Eoanoke lands, though line crops of wheat are 
raised in Northampton County, and in Halifax, giving evi- 
dence of the fitness of the low-ground soils for that crop." 
The visitor from other States may therefore expect to find 
opportunities for a variety of cultivation that he has not been 
led to anticipate from the current impression conveyed in the 
usual references to this State. 

Other Grains: Peas, Potatoes, &c. 

The census of 1860 shows a production of ■436,856 bushels 
of rye, and 2,781,860 bushels of oats, both being very equally 
distributed over the State. Barley is scarcely grown, and but 
a small quantity of buckwheat. Peas and beans are much in 
excess of any other State of the Union, both in 1850 and 1860 ; 
being in 1850, 1,584,252 bushels, and in 1S60, 1,932,204 
bushels. Peas are, in fact, a most prolific crop, favored 
greatly by both soil and climate, and the natural alternate of 
wheat and Indian corn. All writers on the cultivation of 
lands of lower North Carolina recommend sowing peas, as a 
preparatory, or fallow crop. Euffin says (p. 89, "Statistics" 
&c.) speaking of the northeastern counties : — 

"The farmers of this region possess peculiar facilities for rotation in the 
pea crop, and a climate admirably adapted to its growth. The limited terri- 
tory on which both the pea and the wheat crop can grow well, the one suit- 
ing so well to prepare for and aid the growth of the other, I deem the most 
favored of agricultural regions. . . . It is true that peas are planted, as 
a secondary crop, in every field of corn, and the returns are highly valued. 
. . . With the superior facilities for the best growth of peas, if I were 
farming in this region, I should much prefer pea-fallow to clover-fallow to 
precede wheat." 

The greater part of the pea crop so produced with corn is 
fed off by hogs on the ground in the fall and winter following, 


so that the full production of the State does not appear in the 

Sweet potatoes constitute a crop having peculiar value in this 
climate. In 1850 the production of the State was 5,095,709 
bushels, and in 1860, 6,140,039 bushels. The sandy pine lands 
lead off in this crop, several of these counties making up 
from 200,000 to 300,000 bushels each. Proper attention has 
not yet been given to the early shipment of sweet potatoes 
northward. With the rapidly extending consumption of the 
large cities, and of the interior towns of the Northern States, 
supplied by railroad from the seaports, this will become a 
staple export and source of profit. A large share of such pro- 
duce can come cheaply to Norfolk, there connecting with the 
trade in other market garden products. It is a noticeable 
fact that the mountain counties of the western border produce 
sweet potatoes in considerable quantity. In 1860 ten of these 
counties produced no less than 109,000 bushels, no one of 
them being without some small quantity. 

Irish potatoes are grown to a smaller extent, the quantity 
being but one-eighth of the sweet potatoes, or 830,565 bushels 
for 1860. The greatest quantity is in the west, but they are 
distributed everywhere. The only difference caused by the 
climate is that the crop grows earlier in the season as we go 
southward. It may be eminently profitable as an early garden 
crop, to put in the northern markets by the early part of June. 
It is customary to plant them in December for the earliest 
use, which is in May, and to follow with later plantings for 
later uses. 

Fruits, Grapes, Wine, and Market Gardening. 

The census returns of orchard products are again our best 
guide to the valuable fruit growth of North Carolina. In 1860 
the whole value of these was $643,688, a sum unexpectedly 
large. Peaches in the eastern counties, and apples, with peaches, 
pears, and cherries, in the central counties and the west, make 
up the market fruits. The apples are peculiarly fine, the native 
varieties doing better than those cultivated at the North. All 
the counties of the interior lying somewhat elevated above 
the deeper river valleys, are very favorable to orchard fruits. 


Some of the finest fruits known south of New York are of 
North Carolina origin, and native seedlings of this State are 
conspicuous for size and fine flavor. Wilkes and Rutherford 
Counties, east of the Blue Ridge, and Buncombe County, west 
o\ it, are celebrated for fine apples and fine cherries. The 
requisites for fine orchard fruits appear to be more fully met 
in the climate of Western North Carolina, indeed, than in any 
part of the country south of New York. 

Peaches belong more particularly to the eastward counties, 
or to those lower than the best localities for the fruits just 
referred to. The uncertainty of "peach seasons" in New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland renders it important to extend 
their growth to warmer localities, and now attention is being 
directed to the belt from North Carolina to Georgia, corres- 
ponding in position relatively to the sea on one side and to the 
inland districts on the other, which the northern peach region 
has. Heretofore, so little attention has been given to planting 
out largely that the capacity of the section has not been 
proved. It cannot be doubted that it has great capacity, how- 
ever. The peach tree is almost indigenous here; it comes 
early, and grows to great size. The only question is that of 
transportation, but with care in packing it should be practica- 
ble to ship from Wilmington, Newbern, or Norfolk with 
dispatch and safety. As the season is a full month earlier 
than that of ripening in Delaware, the question of competition 
is not in the way. Cheap and safe transportation has already 
been provided through a semi-weekly line of steamers from 
Wilmington to New York, which can put any such products 
in market in fifty hours, while by railroad only thirty-six 
hours' time is required. 

Wine is, as the census of 1860 shows, a standard product 
of North Carolina. Three leading American grapes have 
their origin here — the Scuppernong, the Catawba and the 
Lenoir. From the Scuppernong grape chiefly, 54,064 gallons 
of wine are reported to have been made in 1860, the larger 
quantity in the low eastern counties, but with a surprising 
distribution of small quantities in every part of the State. 

First, the Scuppernong grape is the most extraordinary 
plant of its class in the world. It is identified chiefly with 


the Albemarle and Pamlico districts, where it is a native, 
growing wild in many localities. The vine is capable of 
making an enormous growth, covering half an acre, almost, 
if the fertility of the soil and other circumstances favor. It 
need "not be trimmed or cut back, but must be allowed to 
grow over a large space, its production being in proportion 
to its size. Large vines will form a canopy covering thou- 
sands of square feet, and the production of one vine may s 
reach 50 bushels of grapes. They are round, of a rusty white 
color, a thick skin and a sweet pleasant juice. The wine is 
considered especially fine by most persons, and it has long 
been made in considerable quantity in many of the eastern 
counties for the local use of the people. It would warrant 
cultivation for export, as well on account of its quality, as 
for the facility with which the grapes may be grown to any 
extent. Though totally unlike any European grape, since 
the vines, instead of being cut short and multiplied in number 
on the surface, grow so large that a single plant will cover 
2000 to 5000 square feet, the Scuppernong is an unfailing 
bearer, and instead of a half dozen or a dozen bunches con- 
stituting the growth of a year, as many bushels may be 
gathered. There is no bunch to this grape, the fruit being 
formed two or three berries, at most, together, but the size of 
these is equivalent to many more of the common or European 

This picturesque and peculiar vine is first met with in 
North Carolina. It will scarcely grow at Norfolk, and not at 
all in States further north. It is a singular anomaly in grape 
cultivation, and the only known wine grape of the giant 
North American wild species. 

The Catawba is the most important grape of general culti- 
vation in every part of the United States where grapes will 
grow at all. It is the favorite on Lake Erie as well as in its 
native district of Western North Carolina. Major Adlum, of 
Georgetown, D. C, through whose efforts it was originally 
brought into notice, " thought that he had conferred a greater 
boon upon the American people by its introduction than if 
he had paid the national debt." Though this was spoken 
when the debt was less than now, it is a fair illustration of 


the universal acceptance of the Catawba grape as the finest 
among cultivated varieties. The Catawba is claimed to be a 
native of Buncombe County, and the Lincoln, or Lenoir, is a 
native of Lincoln County. The Isabella grape is often ac- 
credited to Western North Carolina as its place of origin. Uni- 
versally cultivated as it is, it is certain that its best growth is 
in the elevated lands of the Southern States. Another valu- 
able grape, which is a native of North Carolina, is the Lenoir, 
just referred to, promising much as a wine grape ; and still 
another new one is called the North Carolina Seedling. All 
observers are struck by the evidences which most parts of 
both Virginia and North Carolina afford, of the great adap- 
tation they have to the growth of grape-vines, wild or culti- 
vated. In the low country the gigantic Scuppernong grape 
is without a parallel in the world for magnitude of growth, 
and abundance of production. "Writers have even declared 
that no plant known produces so much for the uses of man, 
as a full grown vine of this Scuppernong grape. A gentle- 
man of Mississippi writes to the Gardener's Monthly in 1868, 
styling it " the grape of America." He says : — 

" This most wonderful grape was first brought to notice by Col. James 
Blount, of Scuppernong, North Carolina, who found it growing wild on the 
banks of the Scuppernong River. The name was given by Calvin Jones, 
of the Southern Planter, in which paper Col. Blount presented it to the 
public, in several well written articles. It is also said that an Episcopal 
clergyman, grandfather to Gen. Eettigrew, very highly recommended it 
to the Southern people. It is now generally known, and universally 
esteemed by all grape-growers of the South, and it is destined to revolu- 
tionize grape-growing and wine-making throughout America. It grows 
in small bunches, of four to ten berries, of large size, juicy, round, sweet, 
luscious, rich flavored. Skin very thick, light green, marked sometimes 
with yellow dots ; tough, bears handling, keeps well, excellent for wine. 
. . There are three varieties, white, black, and golden-hued. The white 
is the native, and the one generally known : it makes an amber-colored 
wine. The black ripens after the white is gathered, and makes a darker 
wine, though there is no difference in the taste of tbe fruit. It remains on 
the vine till after frost, and will sometimes keep till after Christmas. The 
white berries are gathered by shaking the vine ; the black must be picked. 
. . . . It is immensely productive, surpassing all others in its most fabu- 
lous yield ; a single vine often producing annually from 25 to 50 bushels 
of grapes. One vine in this county is said to have yielded over 50 bushels 
this last year (1867). Dr. Neisler, of Georgia, has one averaging 35 bushels. 
There is one at Mobile averaging 40 bushels, bringing its owner over 


$300. Col. Ross, of Georgia, writes that lie has a vine, thirty years old, 
that yields annually from 35 to 75 gallons of wine. There is one near 
Somerville, Tenn., producing fruit enough for a small family, and making 
a barrel of wine besides. Two vines are ordinarily considered enough, in 
North Carolina, for an ordinary sized family. Mr. Van Buren estimates 
that 100 vines planted on three acre* of land will yield every year after 
maturity 5250 gallons, or 1750 gallons per acre. Mr. W. F. Stevenson 
says that this estimate is entirely too low — that 100 vines will yield twice 
as many gallons at ten years of' age, and three or four times as much as 

they grow older The Scuppernong never fails to bear ; never 

mildews ; never rots, and is seldom troubled by frost. There are but few 
fruit trees, if any, known to live half so long as the Scuppernong. Its 
native region is a level, dry, sandy open soil ; though it is also found in 
abundance in pine barrens and along hill-sides, near the Tar, Neuse, 
Roanoke, and Cape Fear Rivers. It will flourish in alluvial bottoms aa 
well as in sandy plains. Thousands of acres in the South can be planted 
■with it ; indeed, it will grow anywhere that corn and cotton will grow, 
and is ten times as profitable as either. An acre that will grow 30 bushels 
of corn will yield 300 bushels of Scuppernong grapes. . . . The celebrated 
chemist, Dr. Jackson, of Boston, analyzed 38 of the best wine grapes of 
America, and he says, ' Scuppernong wine may be made so fine as to 
excel all others made on this continent.' The white variety makes a 
beautiful, pale, amber-colored wine ; sweet, rich, luscious, and fragrant, 
everywhere the ladies' favorite : so says the President of the Memphis and 
Little Rock Railroad, who has been familiar with it for many years. . . . 
It is the Poor Man's Friend — and it richly deserves this appellation, be- 
because it needs no pruning nor training, nor placing vines along trellis 
work ; because it never mildews nor rots, and never fails to produce an 
abundant crop." 

J. M. D. Miller, of Iuka, Miss., 

in Oard. Monthly, March, 1868. 

This enthusiastic tribute may appear extravagant to those 
who have never seen a full-grown vine in bearing, but by 
those who have, and who have used the wine, no exaggera- 
tion will be charged. 

Garden Products. 

Market garden products attain to respectable proportions in 
the census reports of North Carolina, being for 1860, $75,663 
in value. For many varieties no return is made, and un- 
doubtedly a small portion only is included in the values 
above. The item is valuable only as showing that some 
counties attain to $15,000 in value for what should be, and 
probably already is approaching $50,000 for each county of 


the more accessible in the eastern part of the State. Unfor- 
tunately we have no recent report of this cultivation, and 
only know that in many spots the work of market garden 
cultivation has been energetically and profitably begun. 

The Ground Pea, or Pea-Nut. 

A novel crop in the eastern part of the State is the ground 
pea, or pea-nut, the cultivation of which is very profitable on 
the light lands near the coast. For many years past these 
pea-nuts have been the preference in the northern markets, 
and large quantities are sent there. The chief production is 
in the counties near "Wilmington, and at that city a constant 
shipping market has existed for several years past. The 
average quantity shipped for several years up to 1861 was 
about 200,000 bushels. During the war of course they were 
not grown for shipment outward, but the trade is now reviv- 
ing, and nearly restored to its best proportions. 

Onslow County, about fifty miles northeast of "Wilmington, 
reported in 1867 to the agricultural department that the 
growth of ground-nuts, or pea-nuts, was the farming specialty, 
and that the crop grown was 50 to 90 bushels per acre, and 
the value $2 25 to $2 50 per bushel. The light soil of the 
low pine lands is particularly adapted to this crop, and at the 
production and prices reported above, it is very remunera- 
tive. The cultivated pea-nuts of the coast, from Virginia 
southward, and particularly those obtained at Wilmington, 
are far superior to those imported from Africa and other for- 
eign countries. 



The extent of the mineral resources of all the States of the 
seaboard south of Delaware has, for years past, been much 
undervalued in consequence of the delay in developing them. 
While the reputation of North Carolina and Georgia has been 
very well known in the production of gold, there has been no 
proper credit given for the more useful minerals, and particu- 
larly for coal and iron. It may be a subject of surprise to 
claim much merit for North Carolina coal fields, (vet the prin- 
cipal locality, on the Deep and Cape Fear Rivers, covers an 
area of forty square miles in Chatham and Moore Counties, in 
which there is a most extensive bed of the best bituminous 
coal in the world. ^The superior character of this coal has 
been vouched for in an official report by Admiral Wilkes to 
the Navy Department in 1859, and by Prof. Emmons, in his 
general geological report for the State. Prof. W. C. Kerr, the 
present State geologist, describes these coal fields as follows : — 

" Coal is found in two districts in North Carolina, known as the Deep 
River and Dan River coal fields. In both the coal is bituminous, and 
occupies a narrow tract of country along the course of the rivers from which 
they respectively take their names. These beds, therefore, follow in their 
outcrop the general direction of the rocks of the country. The Dan River 
bed is distant from market, and has been little explored. There is an out- 
crop in Rockingham and Stokes Counties, one seam being four feet thick. 
The Deep River bed is better known, and probably more extensive. It is 
described in detail in the geological reports of Dr. Emmons for 1852 and 
1856 ; and also by Admiral Wilkes, in his report to the Secretary of the 
Navy, in 1859. According to these authorities, this coal is of the best 
quality, well adapted to the manufacture of iron and of gas, and it is inex- 
haustible in quantity. They represent it as extending over an area of more 
than forty square miles, and containing more than 6,000,00.0 tons to each 
square mile. This bed, therefore, would yield more than 1,000,000 tons 
annually, for several hundred years." 

Other writers speak in even higher terms of these coals, 
their characteristic being a very dense, heavy and rich bitu- 
minous coal, without sulphur, and admirably adapted to gas 
making. It has been said for years, that this North Carolina 
bed from Deep to Cape Fear Rivers, would ultimately exceed 
in value that at Richmond, Virginia, with which its position 
shows a general similarity. A condensed report on the facility 
with which this coal can be mined and transported, will be 
found in the Appendix. 


Iron Ores and Iron Works. 

, There are various localities furnishing unusually good iron 
ores in North Carolina, and the finest wrought iron has been 
made there in small quantities since colonial times. The iron 
of Lincoln County has been particularly celebrated for its 
strength and toughness. In the report of the American Iron 
Association for 1859, no less than fifty-one furnaces, forges 
and bloomaries are enumerated, as having been in operation at 
various recent periods, about one-half of them being at that 
time at work. Some of the ore beds are among the most 
promising in the United States, and that in Guilford County, 
near Greensboro, is just now being put in operation, making 
iron with ten Catalan forges, a steam hammer weighing eight 
tons, and three hundred workmen.* 

The accounts given of the iron ore beds of this State are 
here condensed from Prof. Emmons' reports, and from the 
reports of the American Iron Association. 

Beginning at the western part of the midland counties, or 
those between the foot of the Blue Ridge and the low counties 
of the coast, we find three valuable belts of magnetic iron 
ore ; the first passing within six or seven miles of Lincolnton, 
in Lincoln County, on the Catawba. 

"The beds of ore are seen on the north side of the plank road, seven 
miles from Lincolnton. The limestone is a mile west of the ore. The ore 
is usually/ near the crest of a ridge, or traverses parallel ridges very 
obliquely. . . The veins of Lincoln County are lens shaped, with knife 
edges lapping each other, increasing to six or eight feet thick in a length 
or depth of fifty or sixty feet. . . The ore is usually fine grained, soft, 
easily crushed in the hands, strongly magnetic, easily smelted. . . . The 
veins have been wrought for many years, and have made a celebrated iron, 
strong and tough." 

This ore bed extends into Gaston County, at King's Moun- 
tain, and at this point the Briggs' vein is forty feet thick. 

* "Greensboro, North Carolina, May 25th, 1869. 

The North Carolina Central Steel and Iron Manufacturing Company, 
in this county, are just receiving their machinery. The ponderous steam 
hammer weighs over eight tons. The Company is now erecting ten 
Catalan forges, and will, in a short time give employment to three or four 
hundred skilled iron workers, the most of whom will be from Pennsylva- 
nia." — Bulletin of the American Iron and Steel Association, May 26, 1869. 


Iron has been made here for half a century. Beds of hema- 
tite ore occur on both King's Mountain and Crowder's Moun- 
tain, and Prof. Lesley says that "the resources of the present 
veins are so vast that no inducement is held out to active 
exploration." Twelve or fifteen furnaces and forges have 
long been at work on these splendid ore banks; and in one 
of them the ore contains nickel, this ore being worked by 
Columbia furnace and forges. In Cleveland County, just 
west of Lincoln and Gaston, six forges were at work in 1859 
on fine magnetic ores, obtained from the mountains east of 
and near the First Broad Eiver. (There are other works in 
Rutherford County, adjoining. This whole district is rich 
almost without parallel in magnetic and hematite ores of 
the best quality. / 

Next are the belts of ore in and near the valley of the 
Yadkin River, and occurring chiefly in Montgomery, Ran- 
dolph, Davie, Guilford, Stokes, and Surrey Counties. Near 
Troy there are some fine masses ; one occupies a low hill a 
quarter of a mile in length, and fifty feet wide — a fine, heavy 
peroxide. Beds of specular and of magnetic ore lie near 
each other north of Troy. (Prof. Lesley.) These are near the 
Carter gold mine. " Three or four miles southwest of Frank- 
linville, and near Deep River, heavy black masses of mag- 
netic ore lie in abundance loose about the uncultivated sur- 
face, near a fine ore bed." " In Stokes County four bloomary 
forges, within ten miles around Danville, work up magnetic 
ore. ... A magnetic ore bed, one mile from Danbury, is six 
feet thick, nearly vertical, strike northeast; percentage of 
iron 77; depth of shaft fifty-seven feet. The Dan River coal 
basin is within ten miles." (Lesley.) Some of these works 
have long been in operation, but without adequate capital. 
In Surrey and Yadkin Counties, near the localities just men- 
tioned, the same beds are found, and twelve or fifteen forges 
have at various times been in operation. In Catawba County, 
some distance southwest, there are also several works, and 
fine magnetic beds; but in Guilford County, near Greensboro, 
and east of the counties last above named, there are "several 
veins of black and middling coarse, valuable magnetic ore, 
unmixed and pure, which have long been known." This is 


the locality of the extensive new works just referred to, and 
the extraordinary opportunity offered to make the best iron 
at very cheap rates, might be much more largely improved. 

The third belt of what Lesley calls primary iron ores is 
found on the Neuse and Cape Fear Eivers, in Chatham, John- 
ston, Wake, and Orange Counties. In Chatham County is 
" Ore Hill, a famous locality of hematite ore, traversing a knob 
three hundred feet high in east and west belts of talc slate, 
quartz, etc., forming the pinnacle of the hill. Here old excava- 
tions show where, in the times of the Revolutionary war, the 
large concretionary masses of ore were extracted." A portion 
of the ore of Chatham County is said to be identical with the 
celebrated Blackband of Scotland. Various extensive beds 
of hematite ore are reported in the other counties named, and 
a less number of magnetic ore beds. A valuable bed of car- 
bonate of iron, in a vein containing gold, exists on the TJw- 
harrie River. (Dr. Emmons' Kept. 1856.) West of the Blue 
Ridge there is also plenty of valuable ore. ISTo less than 
twenty bloomaries and furnaces have been established in 
Ashe, Wautauga, and Cherokee Counties, representing both 
extremities of the mountain valley region. Some of the ore 
beds were magnetic, and others various forms of hematite. 

Altogether, although the quantity of iron made in any one 
year heretofore has not been large, there is no part of the 
Union more promising for the establishment of works. In 
1856 there were 36 forges at work, making 1182 tons of 
blooms ; while 3 furnaces made of charcoal pig iron 450 tons/ 
and one rolling-mill only was at work. The census reports 
are very incomplete, yet they return, in 1850, 1200 tons of 
bar iron made, value $127,819 ; and in 1860, 1096 tons, value 
$99,656. The Briggs Iron Works, and two other mills just 
below King's Mountain, in South Carolina, have long made 
excellent bar iron for use in the counties adjoining. 

The following account of the iron ore beds of the western 
counties is from Prof. Kerr's report of 1866, and it is so clear 
and forcible as to require transcribing in full : — 

" Iron is found in some of its various forms of ore in most of the western 
counties, but its most important localities are in Cherokee and Mitchell. 
These are worthy of being mentioned with the Iron Mountain of MissourL 


The ore of Cherokee belongs to the class known as hematite. It occurs 
along with each of the parallel subdivisions of the limestone, sometimes on 
both sides of them. It outcrops in immense masses along Notteley, on 
Hiwassee at the junction of Valley Eiver, on Peachtree Creek, and the 
whole length of Valley River, an aggregate distance of twenty-five miles. 
One of these beds, which appears on Peachtree, is a soft, uncompacted 
brown ochre, which has been mined for paint. This bed is well developed 
in the upper portion of the valley of Valiey River, on Paint Creek, and 
again above Valleytown. The ores from many of these beds have been 
wrought in the common bloomaries of the country (of which there were, 
perhaps, half a dozen in the county), and even under this mode of treat- 
ment are said to yield a large percentage of metal of good quality. And 
those beds of slaty ore, which are not workable in such open forges, would 
be easily smelted in a blast furnace. 

"It is apparent, therefore, that there exist in Cherokee County the most 
favorable conditions for the manufacture of iron on an indefinite scale. 
Three large rivers flow along and over the edges of these iron mountains, 
furnishing unlimited power, and at all points ; the ore is interstratified with 
limestone for fluxing ; and the neighboring mountain slopes abound with 
fuel. And if this were not sufficient, the distance is only twenty-five miles 
to the State line, where a railroad will shortly bring mineral fuel from 
Chattanooga. Nothing is wanting but transportation to develop here a 
manufacturing interest equal to any on the continent. 

" The other principal iron bed is that of Mitchell County, near the head of 
Toe River. This ore is found in the gneissic series of rocks, and is mag- 
netic, or gray ore. It occurs in an immense bed of hornblende slate and 
syenite, near the base of the Yellow Mountains and a few miles from the 
State line. The outcrop is on the lower slope of the mountain, perhaps 
200 feet above its base, and reveals a network of heavy 'veins,' or beds, 
extending over several acres of surface. It is inexhaustible in quantity. 
The iron manufactured in the bloomaries of the neighborhood has been 
long celebrated for its tenacity and durability, and is admirably adapted to 
the manufacture of steel. It is known as the Cranberry iron, from a small 
stream near the ore banks. Here, also exist the best natural facilities for 
the manufacture of iron. Water power and fuel in the greatest profusion 
are at hand, and the only difficulty here, too, is in the matter of transporta- 
tion, which, however, could be readily overcome. 

" Magnetic ore is found in many other localities, and no doubt this Cran- 
berry ore will be discovered in other outcrops in these mountains. Ore of 
the same character appears at the western base of the mountain, at Flat 
Rock, which is probably a continuation of the same series of beds. Mag- 
netic ore occurs near Marshall also, in Madison County, and again near 
Fines Creek, in Haywood ; in each case, having the same association of 
hornblendic rocks. It is also found in Macon County at several points, 
here in a garnetiferous mica schist. Hematite ore occurs at one or two 
points in Buncombe, and a bed of it also overlies the limestone in Transyl- 
vania County, appearing again with it on the North Fork in McDowell. 
This association with limestone, which occurs so frequently, is not acci- 
dental, but points to the origin of these ores." 


Gold Mines. 

/ North Carolina has been celebrated for half a century as 
a gold-mining country, and the reports of the IT. S. Mint 
show that more than ten_jnillions of dollars' worth of 
gold has come from this State to the Mint for coinage. 
Previous to 1869 there had been coined at the Branch Mint 
at Charlotte, North Carolina, $4,520,730 of North Carolina 
gold, and at the IT. S. Mint at Philadelphia, $4,666,026 of the 
same production. These items, with $147,756 assayed at 
New York, and $99,585 coined at Dahlonega, represent a 
known addition to the gold coin of the country of $9,434,097, 
while it is probable that at least $2,500,000 in value passed 
into use in the arts, was sent abroad, or was retained in some 
way from the mint. Since the war about $400,000 in gold 
has been received at the Mint and Assay offices from North 
Carolina, the amount in 1868 being about $100,000. In 1866 
it was over $140,000. The gold mines of the State are all in 
positions of very ready access, and, whatever their produc- 
tion may be, are very easily and cheaply worked. The 
quartz veins, and other gold-bearing rocks, are all up-tilted 
and broken down by the great geological forces which swept 
over the State east of the Blue Eidge. They all stand on 
edge over a surface generally very little broken up into hills 
or mountains, and, with good machinery, any vein promising 
a fair return, should be worked with profit. 

The principal mines are west of the centre of the State, 
and about half way from Raleigh to the foot of the Blue 
Eidge. Cabarrus County is distinguished as the place of 
original discovery, and one piece of pure gold, weighing 
twenty-eight pounds, was found there. All the counties of 
that section of the State, which is drained chiefly by the 
Yadkin and Catawba Eivers, abound in gold. It is also 
found as far east as Franklin County, north of Ealeigh. Not 
only are all the primary rock formations of the State east of 
the Blue Eidge often found to yield gold,^but_the mountain 
counties west of the Blue Eidge also show valuable gold 
deposits. Prof. W. C. Kerr, the present State Geologist, says 
in his report for 1866, that Cherokee and Jackson Counties, 


in the extreme southwest, showeold freely at the western 
foot of the Blue Eidge. 

"There are two principal gold regions in the mountain section, one in 
Cherokee, and the other in Jackson. The gold helt of Cherokee is in the 
same body of slates which carries the limestone and iron. It is found 
both in the veins and in superficial deposits. The sands of Valley River 
yield it profitably through a large part of its course, and some very rich 
washings have been found along its tributary streams on the north side. 
The origin of this gold is very near the limestone. A remarkably rich vein 
has been opened near the town of Murphy, known as No. 6, which imme- 
diately underlies the marble. This is a silver-lead quartz vein, in which 
is imbedded a large percentage of free gold. There is a strong probability 
of other similar veins having furnished the golden sands of the river and 
streams above mentioned. 

"On the southeast of the limestones is also a series of diggings along 
the lower slopes of the mountains from near Valley Town to Vengeance 
Creek, a distance of twelve or fifteen miles. The gold is found here in 
the drift which covers the lower spurs and terminal ridges of the moun- 
tains south of Valley Eiver. . . . The continuation of this gold belt south- 
westward is rendered probable by the existence of several valuable mines 
in this direction beyond the Hiwassee, as the Warren mine on Brasstown 
Creek, and others on Notteley River, in Georgia. . . . The gold of Jack- 
son County is also obtained almost entirely from washings. . . . The most 
important locality is Fairfield Valley, where Georgetown Creek, one of 
the head streams of the Toxaway, is said to have yielded between 
$200,000 and $300,000. The deposits extend several miles." 

The latest Geological Eeport of Professor Kerr, which 
has just been issued, May, 1869, has an interesting descrip- 
tion of the gold producing districts of the east side of the 
Blue Eidge, and along the South Mountains, which we extract 
from as follows: — 

"In the Piedmont section there are three gold placers of considerable 
note. One of these is at Sandy Plains in Polk County. The gold is found 
in the gravel from the debris of denuded hills of mica schist. This gravel 
is found in the beds of small streams, over an area of several miles. These 
diggings are still wrought in a small way. No veins have been discovered. 
The most extensive and notable deposit in this region, and in the State, is 
found in the South Mountains on the head waters of the First and Second 
Broad, and of Silver and Muddy Creeks. It is divided into four principal 
districts, on the above mentioned streams, which are named respectively 
Whiteside, Jeanstown, Brindletown, and Brackettown. The whole area 
occupied, interruptedly, by this deposit, is between one and two hundred 
square miles. These mines were opened about the year 1880, and were 
operated on a large scale, but in a rude way, until the discovery of the Cali- 
fornia mines. Some thousands of laborers were at work here for a number of 


years, and no doubt several millions of gold were obtained. Work is still 
carried on at a great many points, and several thousands of dollars are 
annually mined. The deposits were originally very rich, and yielded fre- 
quently ten dollars a day for each laborer. The gold bearing drift or gravel 
is accumulated along the beds of the streams, on the benches of the hills, 
and in all the various situations which have, in California, given rise to 
the division into river, hill, bench, flat, and gulch diggings. Some of the 
deposits on the larger streams are quite extensive, and of considerable 
depth. Many of them have been worked over several times. The pro- 
cesses heretofore employed were of the rudest kind, and no doubt the in- 
troduction of the improved California methods would render the mines 
again very profitable. Many of the hill and bench deposits have never 
been worked, and could not be except by the hydraulic process. The gold 
of these placers has evidently been derived from the numerous small veins 
in the slopes of the adjacent hills and mountains. The gangue of these 
veins is usually a granular white quartz (saccharoid). They are small, and 
have not been mined hitherto. Machinery has been put up, however, near 
Brackettown for the purpose of working one of these saccharoidal veins, 
which seems to be nearly a foot in thickness. 

" The third gold field referred to is in Caldwell County, on Lower Creek. 
Operations have been carried on here on a considerable scale on both sides 
of the creek, but mostly on the north side, along the beds of the tributary 
streams which come clown from the terminal spurs and ridges of the "Warrior 

Mountains, dividing the waters of Lower Creek from John's Eiver 

There are many other places where gold has been obtained from gravel in 
considerable amounts, as in the beds of some small streams on the slopes 
of the hills three to four miles west of Morganton, where gold washing is 
still carried on profitably ; also in the waters of the Second Broad, in 
Butherford ; on Pacolet Biver, in Polk County, and in several parts of 
Cleveland and Lincoln Counties. 

"The Shuford mine in the eastern part of Catawba, which contains both 
placers and veins, is situated in the King's Mountain belt. It has been 
worked for a number of years with very satisfactory results, and operations 
are to be resumed shortly. These are dry diggings, and the difficulty is in 
procuring a supply of water. Vein mining has never been extensively 
carried on in this region. The Mountain Mining Company were erecting 
machinery during last summer to operate the quartz vein already mentioned, 
and were about to reopen a mine some four miles south of Shelby which 
is neither a vein nor a placer mine. The gold-bearing rock is a heavy 
ledge of brown, ferruginous mica-schist, which is impregnated with iron 
pyrites in a state of minute subdivision, and abounds in garnets. There 
is no semblance of a vein proper. Dr. Emmons reports that gold is found 
in the conglomerates of Montgomery, and the very intelligent superinten- 
dent of the Bhodes mine in Lincoln assured me that he obtained gold from 
the common gray gneiss of the country, which constitutes the wall rock of 
that vein ; and at the King's Mountain in Gaston, large quantities of the 
limestone are stamped and washed. And I have seen gold-bearing fels- 
pathic slates from Moore County, and talco-quartzose slates from Mont- 
gomery ; so that, although the gangue rock of gold in this State is usually 


quartz, compact, or saccharoidal, it is far from being universally so, nor is 
the occurrence of these auriferous rocks limited to veins. 

" There are two other mines in the Piedmont section that are worthy of 
mention, the Baker (or Davis), and the Michaux, both on John's River, 
near the Caldwell and Burke line. The latter has yielded some very fine 
cabinet specimens, the veins being numerous, small, and in places very 
rich If we pass beyond the Piedmont group into the King's Moun- 
tain slates, there are many famous gold mines along this formation, and in 
the gneissic rocks between it and the Lower Catawba ; several of which 
have lately been reopened under favorable auspices ; the King's Mountain 
mine, the Rhodes, Beattie, and two or three others. These are now ope- 
rated by companies and under superintendents of California experience, in 
several cases, with the most improved California machinery, manufactured 
in San Francisco. From these facts, and especially from the superior 
engineering skill which is now employed in these and several other such 
enterprises of the Mountain Mining Company, I infer that a new era is 
opening upon the mining interests of one State." 

But the most celebrated gold mines are in Cabarrus County, 
particularly the Reed mine, discovered in 1799, and from 
which more than a dozen nuggets, weighing together more 
than 120 pounds, have been taken at different times. The 
best of these mines are veins of q uartz, or of slaty veinstone, 
with iron and copper pyrites associated. Many of these 
veins are as promising as those of California or Colorado, and 
if worked by powerful machinery, would, in the opinion of 
most persons who have compared them, yield better than 
those celebrated districts of the Pacific coast. Quartz crush- 
ing machinery has been but little tried, however, the people 
having heretofore passed these rich districts by to waste their 
energies on a more distant field. A great deal of successful 
placer or surface mining has been done in Burke and other 
counties at the eastern part of the Blue Eidge. It is esti- 
mated that more than a million of dollars has been so obtain- 
ed in Burke County alone. It is a peculiarity of most of the 
previous washing of sands in search of gold in North Caro- 
lina, that only the rudest processes were employed, and not 
only was the separation of the gold imperfect in such as was 
washed, but much rich material has been left untouched. 

It will be an inviting field to an Eastern or Northern man 
who would like to try gold mining without going to California, 
to buy a tract in this tempting region, and while he prosecutes 


farming or any other business as a general pursuit, try his 
hand at leisure times in obtaining gold from his own lands. 
Some of the best and most profitable of gold mining in the 
State, heretofore has been conducted by thrifty farmers in the 
intervals of other employment. The present writer has per- 
sonally seen several who have thus saved money, and who 
were, at the time, travelling in the Northern States, and de- 
signing still to return and continue the double employment 
by which their wealth had been acquired. 

We would be able to give a more complete directory to 
the gold mines and gold-producing localities, were the written 
accounts heretofore published as definite as they should 
be. The best way is to go to Salisbury, a town of easy 
access by the North Carolina Eailroad from Ealeigh by way 
of Greensboro ; and on reaching Salisbury, make examina- 
tions, first in Cabarrus, Stanly and Anson Counties, for vein 
mining ; next westward to Burke County for the surface 
" diggings," and also beyond the Blue Ridge, if possible, to 
the washings at the western foot of the Blue Ridge, in the 
extreme southwest, before described. The North Carolina 
Railroad is being rapidly extended in the direction of the 
passage of the Blue Ridge, at Swannanoa Gap, and the road 
to Asheville by way of this gap is not at all difficult. 

There are valuable and interesting mines of gold and 
copper near Greensboro, also, which are described in the list 
of vein mines. 

The annual production of gold in North Carolina is now, 
probably, about twice the value of that which reaches the 
mint. This amount sent to the mint was, in 1868, $89,805 in 
value. While it may be much more, it cannot be less than 
$180,000; and probably a better estimate would be about 
$250,000 as the present annual value of these gold mines. 
The list of vein gold mines on page 47, following, will give 
as good an account of the condition of that branch of gold 
mining in the States, as is practicable now to be obtained. 


Silver Mines. 

Silver mining is of sufficient importance in several counties 
to justify an allusion to it. In Davidson County, at a locality 
known as Sjlyer Hill, the ; Washington __ mine is the most 
valuable of these. While silver was in demand for coinage, 
a small annual product came to the mint from North Caro- 
lina ; the whole in three years 1859 to 1861, reaching $41,888. 
But four times as much would go into use in the arts, even 
then, and now it all takes that direction. 

Silver is found here, as elsewhere, in combination with 
various other metals; with gold, copper, lead and zinc. .The 
silver-bearing rocks are the slates at their line of contact 
with the granite, and along the line of this contact, both 
northeast and southwest from the Davidson County mines, 
there are many localities where silver is. found.) The prin- 
cipal mines southwestward are the Conrad, McMakin, and 
Stewart mines. Prof. Kerr's references to these mines are so 
clear and brief that we reproduce them. In the report of 
1866 he says : — 

" Silver. — It will be observed tbat the richest gold mines lie along and 
near the line of contact of the slates and granite. And it is also along this 
line that the principal silver mines of this State are found. The most noted 
of these are at Silver Hill, in Davidson County. The combination of 
metal here is quite complex, including, with the silver, gold, lead, copper 
and zinc. A chain of similar mines runs southwest along the western 
border of the States, including the McMakin and Stewart mines. During 
the war the first named of these mines yielded a considerable quantity of 
lead. It had been previously worked chiefly for silver and gold. The 
same association of metals occurs in Cherokee." 

Also in the report of Prof. Kerr just published (1869) the 
following reference is made : — 

" Silver and Lead. — These two metals are associated in their ores in 
this State. On the north slope of the Beech Mountain in Watauga 
County, on the waters of Watauga River at two points galena has 
lately been discovered which is rich in silver. . . A similar outcrop of 
galena was found a number of years ago at Flint Knob, in Wilkes County. 
The ore is of good quality, containing both gold and silver ; but no ex- 
posure of the vein has been effected, from which a reasonable conclusion 
can be drawn as to its extent and value. The ore, so far as exposed, is in 
a coarse slaty gneiss." 



Ores of copper are very frequently found in almost all parts 
of the State, and at some points they have been mined very 
successfully. A few years since quite a fever of speculation 
rag ed in reg axd_lo copper mines, and in the pursuit of the 
mineral gossan, which is supposed to indicate the locality of 
veins»of ores. This gossan is a showy sulphuret of iron, or 
iron pyrites, found on the surface after the decomposition and 
waste of copper veins, and from which no metal can be ex- 
tracted. The ore is alwaj^s in the vicinity, however, and can 
be worked with profit when opened. Prof. Kerr, in 1866, 
says : — 

" I am not aware of the existence of copper in the mountain section, 
except in what I have called the Jackson belt ; because it is in this county 
that the formation receives its principal development, although it crosses 
the whole breadth of the State, and has yielded copper at several points in 
Macon, on one side, and Hayward, on the other. . . . The copper belt 
occupies the whole middle portion of Jackson County, from the head-waters 
of Tuckasegee River, northward to Scott's and Savannah Creeks, and 
probably several miles beyond. . . . Many of the deposits are of the most 
promising character, and the veins are of unusual size. The principal 
points where mining has been carried on are Cullowhee, Waryhut, and 
Savannah ; although work has been done, and symptoms of the presence 
of copper discovered at many other places — as at Shell Ridge, Scott's 
Creek, Sugar Loaf, Panther Knob, Wolf Creek, etc. The great Cullo- 
whee, where the best exposure.has been made, is eight or nine feet thick ; 
at Waryhut, five or six feet ; at Savannah, where there are several veins 
or beds of ore, the largest which has been opened is nine or ten feet. In 
several of the above localities copper was found within a few feet of the 
surface. The outcrop, in all cases, is the mineral known among miners 
as gossan — really an ore of iron, resulting from the weathering and decom- 
position of the exposed ore, which is yellow copper, or copper pyrites. . . . 
These copper deposits will, no doubt, under a judicious system of mining, 
give rise to many valuable mines." 

Many of the gold mines first worked were abandoned be- 
cause of the greater abundance of copper pyrites than of gold 
ores, and they have since been reopened as copper mines. 
They are, therefore, abundant in all the central counties, in 
Chatham, Guilford, Davidson, Eowan, Cabarrus, and Mecklen- 
burg. The Greensboro mines are valued now as much for 
copper as for gold. The Gillis mine, in Person County, on 
the border of Virginia, is a noted copper mine. 


" The three most noted copper mines in the northwestern part of the 
State are the Elk Knob, Peach Bottom, and Ore Knob. The first is one 
of the most promising outcrops of copper ore in the State. It is a large 
vein of the yellow sulphuret imbedded in the most extensive body of horn- 
blendic rocks in the State. The vein rock is a dark-colored micaceous 
quartzite, nine or ten feet in thickness. It is situated on the northern 
slope of the mountain from which it is named, at an elevation of about four 
thousand feet. . . . The Peach Bottom mine is situated on the west 
side of the mountain range of that name in Alleghany County, and a few 
miles south of the New river. This mine was well furnished with ma- 
chinery for the elevation and concentration of the ore ; it has been wrought 
to a depth of one hundred and fifty feet. ... A portion of the vein 
also yields lead. Large quantities of the ore were sent to the smelting 
works at Petersburg during the war. . . Ore Knob is in the southeast 
part of Ashe County, quite near the Blue Ridge, in the same character of 
rock formations as the last. It is said to have yielded .several thousand 
tons of ore within a depth of 60 or 70 feet. The vein is said to be a large 
one. The ore is ' yellow copper,' as in the other mines. I have no doubt 
that all these mines could be profitably reopened, but for the difficulty of 
transportation to market. In the southeast corner of Ashe County is 
another mine of some note, known as Gap Creek. Dr. Emmons visited it 
when first opened, and reports that at ' a depth of 50 to 60 feet the ore is 
vitreous, which will probably be twice as rich as the yellow sulphuret.' " 
(Prof. Kerr, 1869.) 

The results of copper mining heretofore can scarcely be 
stated. In 1860 the county of Alleghany reported one estab- 
lishment, employing twenty men ; and Guilford County also 
reported one, with a capital of $60,000, employing 180 men and 
ten women, and producing copper to the value of $100,000. 
The aggregate value is now twice what it was in 1860, and a 
little capital employed in developing the present mines could 
be richly repaid. This form of the ore is far less refractory 
in reduction than most others in Virginia, and the States 
northward, where the very hardest of siate veins form the 
copper-bearing rocks, lln the very brief list of copper mines 
which follows, but a small proportion can be named, and it 
will be seen that almost every gold mine is also a copper 
mine, the Gardner mine in Guilford County being a con- 
spicuous instance. 



Where the Gold is found in Quartz Veins and Fissures. 

Conrad Hill Gold Mine, a celebrated mining property, both for gold and cop- 
per, is in the north part of Davidson County, six miles east of Lexington. It 
is a low hill, very easy of access, the gold being found in quartz veins, of which 
six have been identified. The gold is found pure, in pockets, and in the quartz 
itself, and also in the form of sulphurets. Some of the veins now show copper 
largely, and may, perhaps, be more profitably worked for copper than for gold. 

Dodge Hill is a mining property in the immediate vicinity of Conrad Hill, 
having the same formation, and, it is believed, the same veins. It has not been 
worked or opened so fully, but is certainly a valuable deposit. 

Gold Hill Mine, perhaps the most celebrated gold mine, is located on the 
southern border of Rowan County, 14 miles south of Salisbury. It had pro- 
duced of gold, up to 1856, more than $2,000,000 ; of which sum $400,000 came 
from a vein found on Troutman's land, and worked only to 100 feet in depth. 
The Honeycut vein yielded over §100,000 ; and the Earnhardt vein, the richest 
of all, yielded nearly $150,000 a year for some time after its discovery. The 
Barnhardt, another vein, yielded well at the opening, and the Randolph pocket, 
as it was called, gave splendid specimens of native gold. Much speculative 
management at one time took place in regard to this mine, and it was for a long 
time regularly put on the stock boards in New York. The ordinary forms of 
mills and machinery have generally been used, the separation of the gold being 
only by crushing and amalgamation with mercury. The vein stone is a combi- 
nation of iron and copper pyrites, interspersed with seams and masses of 

This celebrated mine was first opened about 1842, and has at times employed 
a large number of miners, the Earnhardt vein alone employing 66 white miners, 
and 39 negroes in 1854, at an average cost of $4000 per month, and realizing a 
net profit of $76,000 in 13 months. It is claimed that it always yielded a profit 
on the working for gold. 

Reed Gold Mine, another celebrated mine, is in Cabarrus County, and is the 
oldest locality at which gold was found in the State. A lump of gold of three 
or four pounds weight was found here in 1799 ; in 1803 one of 28 pounds ; in 
1804, five lumps, weighing 1^ to 9 pounds were found ; in 1826, one of 16 
pounds, one of 9J, and one of 8 pounds ; in 1835, one of 13f, one of 4|, one 
of 5, and another of 8 pounds weight — in all, these lumps weighed 115} pounds 
avoirdupois. This mine has not been worked regularly, and the character of 
the veins is not so well known. A valuable vein of galena, or sulphuret of lead, 
has been found on this property. 

The Phifer Gold Mine, in Union County, was for some time a very successful 
mining property, obtaining the name of the Mint, for this reason. 

The Davis Gold Mine, also in Union County, was also long a profitable mine. 
It was worked to a depth of 90 feet, and abandoned temporarily. 

The Pewter Mine is another gold and silver mine of Union County, in which 
the gold is found alloyed with 40 to 70 per cent, of silver, giving the metal a 
whitish appearance. 

The Hearne Gold Mine is in Stanley County, 2^ miles west of Albemarle. It 
is a quartz vein, yielding gold freely, and has been successfully worked. The 


vein is three feet wide, and has been traced a mile. Eight quarts of the rock 
selected at one time, yielded $80 in gold. 

Long Creek Gold Mine, is on the High Shoal property of the Little Catawba 
River. It was extensively worked for many years, sometimes yielding $3 per 
bushel of ore as taken from the vein. It has the same quartz vein, with iron 
and copper pyrites. 

The Carter Gold Mine is a well-known and valuable mine of Montgomery 
County. It is peculiar in having crystalline limestone associated with the 
quartz of the vein, and in the presence of telluret of gold with the limestone. 

The Reynolds Gold Mine is in Montgomery County, 6 miles northeast of Troy. 
There is some silver in the ore, and the mine has been worked at a moderate 

The Kings' Mountain Gold Mine has a vein of porous quartz, 6 to 7 feet wide 
in which native gold is diffused. It contains crystalline limestone in the lower 
workings, mingled with the quartz, and often bearing gold. It has been worked 
successfully for many years by Mr. Briggs. 

The McCulloch Gold and Copper Mine, near Greensboro, is a celebrated mine 
for both gold and copper. The gold is in a quartz vein, of varying width, but 
growing much larger at a depth of 80 to 100 feet, and with a distinct vein of 
copper pyrites. Native gold is abundant in the quartz, and the copper is rich 
enough for profitable working alone. It is now worked with a large capital, 
both for copper and for gold. Including what is called the Lindsay vein, this 
great vein is more than a mile in length, and with a close management, will 
largely repay the capital employed in working it. The copper ore yields 30 per 
cent, of pure copper. 

The Fisher Hill Gold Mine, in the same vicinity, is in a vein of quartz, with- 
out any copper or iron sulphurets. It can, therefore, be roasted before grind- 
ing, and yields an average of $3 per bushel, as raised from the mine. 

Hodge's Hill Mine is a mine containing a variety of minerals and metals. The 
ore of copper is rich, but the gold has not been found in such abundance as to 
be profitable. 

The Lindsay Mine is a continuation of the McCulloch Mine ; it has been sepa- 
rately worked, but not with so much success. 

The Gardner Mint, near Jamestown, and in the same cluster of mining pro- 
perties, is a quartz vein, very rich in gold, and also rich in copper pyrites, 
yielding 30 per cent, of pure copper. It has paid large profits on the gold 
working alone. It has been worked to a depth of 110 feet, yielding better there 
than at less depth. 

The Season, the Harlan, and the Beard mines are other gold mines of this 
Guilford County group, all being southwest of Greensboro, and near Jamestown, 
of that county. They have been worked successfully in some cases, but were 
afterwards abandoned. 

The Rudersill Gold Mine, near Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, is a well- 
known mine, at one time thought to be as profitable as any in the State. It is 
native gold, in quartz veins, the accompanying rocks being slate and granite, 
with some copper ore in and near the veins. There are two or three veins that 
have been worked, giving one dollar of gold per bushel of quartz mined. The 
ore is crushed by steam power. 


The Dunn Mine, seven miles from Charlotte, has been worked for gold, but 
not profitably. 

The Phoenix Mine, in Cabarrus County, has produced ore yielding one to three 
dollars in gold per bushel. It is located 14 miles S. E. from Concord. 

The Barrier Mine, near the Phoenix Mine, is a productive gold mine. 

The Orchard Mine, an extension of the Phoenix Mine eastward, produces both 
gold and copper, but not largely. 

The Pioneer Gold Mines constitute a cluster, twelve miles east of Concord, and 
produce both gold and copper. The vein is quartz, and the surrounding rock 
granite. With one pair of Chilian millstones in operation, 30 to 40 bushels of 
ore were ground per day, with an average yield of gold of §3 30 per bushel. 
In the vicinity of this mine, on the Morrison plantation, there are four veins 
bearing gold, rich both in gold and copper. 

The Long Mine, 2 miles N. W. of the Pioneer, is a vertical vein of crumbling 
quartz, two feet wide, and as rich in gold as the Pioneer. 

Rymer Gold Mine is 6 miles east of Salisbury, to the left of the road leading 
to Gold Hill. The gold is in a three-foot vein of pale-colored sulphuret of iron, 
forming part of a vein fissure of quartz, 7 feet wide. It contains no copper, and 
may be treated by roasting. It is said to be productive. 

The Jones and Lafflin Mines, in Davidson County, belong to a class of gold 
mines different from those above described, and in which the gold is found in 
rocks of sedimentary deposit, and not in intruded veins. The Jones Mine is 
largely worked from a bed of soft slate and quartz, 60 feet wide and 30 feet high, 
yielding 15 to 30 cents of gold per bushel. The LafHin mine, one mile from the 
other, is worked in a soft bed of slate, forty feet deep, and is very productive. 

The Delft Mine, near the Lafflin, is another of this class; and the Bobbins 
Mine, in Randolph County, with the very productive Sawyer Mine, of the same 
county, are others of the same class, the gold being found in beds of soft, sandy 

The Zion Mine, 12 miles from Troy, in Montgomery County, is a deposit of 
gold in quartz, overlying a conglomerate. More than $100,000 have been taken 
from this deposit, and the singular fact is well authenticated that the gold bear- 
ing rock contains fossils. 

The Howie Mine, in Union County, is another yielding gold from sedimentary 
rocks. It is usualiy called the Howie and .Lawson Gold Mines, and is located in 
the hills of this county, near the State line. The gold is found in seams or beds 
of slate and granular quartz, and the yield is $1 50 to $3 00 per bushel of the 
mined rock. 

The Ward Mine,'m Davidson County, has its gold in quartzite seams, horizon- 
tal, or slightly inclined, in slate rocks, not in vertical veins. The gold is crys- 
tallized, and lies in pockets of red clay, some of them having §500 or $600 of 
crystallized gold. There are 20 or 30 of this peculiar class of gold mines in all. 

The Hoover Hill Gold Mine, of Randolph County, is another of this class. 

The Cansler and Shvford Geld Mine, in Catawba County, 16 miles N. E. of Lin- 
colnton, is another of this class, from which a large amount of gold has been 

The Poriis Mine, in Franklin County, is remarkable for the quantity of gold 
found in lumps, the deposit being in seams, not veins. 


The Parker Mine, in Stanley County, also has its gold in seams. $200,000 in 
gold have been taken out. 

The Beaver Dam Mine, in Montgomery County, has been a very productive 
mine of this class. 

Silver Mines. 

The Washington Silver Mine is one of the most important and valuable in North 
Carolina. It is located S. E. of Salisbury, and not far from Gold Hill, the loca- 
lity being called Silver Hill. The mine consists of two heavy veins, originally 
exposed by the plough, on a low rounded hill of but 50 feet elevation. The vein 
is slate, looking much like other slate, but being perceptibly heavier, and con- 
taining both native silver, and silver in combination with galena, or sulphuret of 
lead. Though these are the leading metals, there are also gold, zinc, and cop- 
per, the zinc being particularly abundant. The zinc has interfered with the suc- 
cessful working of the silver, at some times, and a great variety of metallic forms 
and combinations has been disclosed in the workings of the mine. Black, steel- 
grained zinc ore ; galena, with silver combined, and fine arborescent native sil- 
ver, are the most common products. Some of the ore yields as high as 38 per 
cent, of lead, and 3 per cent, of silver. By methods recently adopted, the zinc 
is separated in the form of blende, and 3 tons of the silver lead ore can be 
smelted daily, yielding 100 ounces to each ton, and worth $10 per ounce. An 
extension of the Washington silver veins has been discovered near A. J. Moore's, 
3 miles west of Spencers P. O., which is quite as valuable as the portion so long 

McMackin Silver Mine is 1^ miles S. W. of Gold Hill, and in the same forma- 
tions as the gold mines, but the mineral veins are like those of the Washington 
mine. It is in all respects similar in its products to the mine above described. 
Phosphates and carbonates of lead are found here, also, and a fine imitation of 
French chalk. It has been worked much less than the Washington mine. 

Copper Mines. 

The North Carolina Copper Mine, in Guilford County, sometimes called the 
Fentress mine, has been traced for 3 miles by the external show of quartz. It is 
a vein of quartz and carbonate of iron, from one to three or four feet thick, the 
copper being in the form of yellow pyrites, or sulphuret, yielding 15 to 30 per 
cent, of fine copper. Most of this ore was formerly shipped to Boston for re- 
duction, and was sold for a price dependent on the percentage of copper in it. 
About 1500 tons of the ore had been sent out up to 1856. (Emmons.} 

The Ludowick, Boger, and Hill Mines, 12 miles from Gold Hill, in Cabarrus 
County, are veins yielding the yellow sulphuret of copper largely, and promising 
profitable results when worked. 

The Twin Mine, 6 miles S. W. of Greensboro, shows two veins, each 18 inches 
thick, and only about 4 feet apart, containing quartz thickly crowded with yel- 
low sulphuret of copper. 

Headrick Copper Mine, is composed of veins of copper and iron pyrites intruded 
through slate formations. The veins have been traced more than a mile, and 
there is no doubt of its value as a mine. 


The Spencer Copper Mine, in Randolph County, has a promising sulphuret 

The Standard property, near Gold Hill, and a large number of gold mines 
before named, yield large quantities of rich copper ore. 

The Little Tennessee Copper Mine is»10 miles south of Franklin, Macon County, 
near the Tennessee River. It is only about a mile from the Rabun Gap Rail- 
road, and four miles from the Georgia State line. It is a bed of black ore, the 
form in which the yellow sulphuret is found after decomposition of the iron 
pyrites, and the washing out of the sulphur from both, by the long exposure to 
which the upper part of the original vein has been subjected. Great quantities 
of gossan, or wasted iron oxide, resulting from the same decomposition, abound 
on the surface, and the great promise afforded by the external indications has 
been fully borne out by the results of the openings so far made. 

The Nantahala Copper Mine is four miles southwest of Franklin, Macon County, 
and two or three miles from the track of the railroad. It is a broad mineral 
vein, with a large quantity of both the yellow sulphuret and the black oxide of 
copper within easy reach. 

The celebrated Ducktoicn Copper Mines are just across the line in Tennessee, 
the geological formation, the ores, and the form of mixing, being exactly the 
same as in all the mines west of the Blue Ridge, or particularly those just de- 
scribed. The Ducktown mines show what this class of mines is capable of pro- 
ducing. They were discovered in 1850, and in spite of great difficulties in 
transporting the ore, they had produced, up to 1853, 14,291 tons of copper ore, 
which was sold for more than a million dollars. In September, 1855, seven 
mines of that vicinity produced 807 tons of ore, worth §80,000, or at the rate 
of nearly §1,000,000 annually. 

The Ehvassee Copper Mine, is- the vicinity of the Ducktown, and also just 
across the line of Tennessee, is scarcely less celebrated or less productive than 
the Ducktown. 

The average product of pure copper from the black oxide and the sulphuret of 
these North Carolina mines is more than twice as great as the Cornwall mines 
of England. Dressed ore from the Cornwall mines ranges from four to eight 
per cent, of pure copper only, while this North Carolina ore, as mined, yields 
from ten to fifty per cent., the average being about twenty-five per cent. 

Lead, Zinc, etc. 

Lead, as we have before said, was produced largely during 
the war from the Conrad and McMakin silver mines, but. at 
other times, no regular working for lead has been done. It 
would pay to reduce the galena, so often found with other 
ores, more systematically than has before been attempted ; 
and the fullest proof of this fact is furnished in the production 
of lead at these mines during the Confederate authority. 

Both lead a nd zi nc occur in connection with the primary iron 
ores in North Carolina, as they do in New Jersey ; and in 
many cases it will be found profitable to construct works for 


reducing them. In no country are the valuable metals found 
more frequently associated in the same mineral veins than in 
North Carolina. 

Zinc is abundant in many of 4he gold-bearing veins of 
Cabarrus and Davidson Counties, and as it was formerly much 
neglected, if not wholly unknown to the miners, it is proba- 
ble that it will be found still more largely when it is found to 
be capable of profitable working. It is found principally, if 
not wholly, in the form of sulphuret, better known as zinc 
blende — a fine grained and hard mineral, of an ash-gray color, 
with some metallic lustre, resembling, in some degree, the 
more abundant galena, or sulphuret of lead, with which it is 
often found associated in the mine. Much difficulty has been 
experienced in working the silver ores of the Washington 
and other similar mines in consequence of the presence of 
zinc, and for a long time it was not properly known what 
this intrusive sulphuret was. 

(Several promising veins of zinc blende are known, one at 
the Jacob Troutman gold mine, one mile east of Gold Hill. 
At 100 feet below the surface it first appeared, two inches 
thick ; 50 feet deeper it is six inches thick. This would well 
repay working. At the Washington silver mine of Davidson 
County, zinc blende is abundant, and also at the McMackin 
mine in Cabarrus Count} r . It is believed that not only zinc 
itself, but the white oxide, so valuable as a paint, may be 
readily and profitably made at these hlende mines. 

Chromic iron, the basis of many paints, is found in con- 
siderable quantities in nearly every county west of the Blue 
Ridge. It is claimed by geologists that it can be mined to 
advantage there for transportation to any market. 

Iron pyrites (sulphuret of iron) is found in great abund- 
ance in Cleveland and Rutherford Counties, and, during the 
war, copperas and alum were made there. Prof. Kerr says 
in the report just made, May, 1869 : — 

"The rock weathers easily on exposure to the air, and produces cop- 
peras and alum iu immense quantities. Thousands of tons were manufac- 
tured here during the war, and the business might still be profitably 
conducted. The circumstances under which copperas is made in Vermont 
and elsewhere are not more favorable. The only disadvantage here is in 


the matter of transportation to market, which, however, is likely soon to 
be remedied." 

Iron pyrites is found abundantly in the gold-bearing veins, 
and also with copper pyrites ; sometimes misleading alike 
those who expect too much, and others who expect too little 
from it. Though often a brilliant colored mineral, it is neither 
gold nor copper ; but it may be associated with one or both 
of them, as found in North Carolina, and it is valuable of 
itself, being easily converted into copperas, which is sulphate 
of iron. 

Graphite, or Plumbago, is found in abundance in Wake 
County, a few miles west of Ealeigh, and extending a distance 
of eighteen or twenty miles southwestward. It is in veins, 
six to eighteen inches in width, with quartz associated, and 
the veins dipping at an angle of 60° or 70°. It is highly 
valued as a paint, but contains too much silex for use as 
pencils, or as anti-friction bearings. In Lincoln County, on 
the border of Catawba County, other extensive deposits exist, 
reported to be of good quality, also. Where so much is 
found, it is scarcely possible that the best forms of the 
mineral will not ultimately be discovered. The black-lead 
beds of Wake County alone exceed in extent all others 
known. They have been worked, and the product refined at 
Ealeigh, for some years with fair success. 

The true black-lead, or graphite, as it is called in the 
mineral form, is frequently found in the King's Mountain 
district, in Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties. It is a 
pure carburet of iron, and might be expected in the vicinity of 
such iron ores as are found there ; and wherever found it is 
very valuable. 

Mica is found in the mountain counties in the largest sizes 
known, furnishing plates six by eight inches, and free from 
spots or flaws. " Plates four inches by six, when clear and 
free from flaws, are worth about a dollar and a half per 
pound." (Kerr.) 

Diamonds of large size have been found in the King's 
Mountain district, and in McDowell County is found the 
flexible sandstone, Itacolumile of the mineralogist, in which 
the diamond occurs in other parts of the world. 


Tungsten, a rare metal, " which was long merely a chemi- 
cal curiosity, but has recently assumed a high value, particu- 
larly on account of its relation to the manufacture of steel, 
occurs in Cabarrus County." (Prof. Kerr, Rept. of 1869.) 

Alum and Coppeeas Slates. — Under the head of Iron 
Pyrites these formations have been referred to, the original 
mineral being chiefly that ; but the original form being much 
changed by " weathering" or exposure. In his report of 1866, 
Prof. Kerr says: — 

"Alum and copperas slates abound in many parts of the State, and have 
been extensively brought into requisition during the late war. The counties 
of Cleveland and Rutherford alone contain not less than one hundred square 
miles of these rocks, and could easily supply the continent with copperas. 
This material is derived by the process of weathering, from the iron pyrites, 
which is disseminated in great abundance, and in a state of extreme com- 
minution through the slates, many of which, being feldspathic, also yield 

Limestone, Marble, Building Stone, &c. 

There are three formations in the western part of the State 
which afford supplies of limestone, and two beds east of the 
Blue Ridge, one of which extends through the State from 
Stokes County on the north, to Gaston and King's Mountain 
on the south. The other is in McDowell County, chiefly near 
the Blue Ridge. A small bed of limestone, approaching marl 
in its characteristics, is also found in the northeast parts of 
"Wake County. The largest of the beds in the southwest is in 
Cherokee County, extending along Notteley and Valley Rivers, 
into Macon County. "Jt crops out along the banks and 
beds of the streams, in the fields and roads, and in the bluffs 
overhanging the rivers, so as to be easily accessible and con- 
venient for agricultural purposes." (Kerr.) There are three 
other beds of limestone crossing the valley of the French 
Broad River, in Buncombe and the adjoining counties. Great 
quantities of lime are made here, and distributed to various 
districts for agricultural purposes. One of these belts is 
crystalline, and a natural marble; but unfit for use as marble, 
because of the presence of magnesia. The lower bed at Warm 
Springs, on the French Broad, is a solid blue limestone of 
great purity. 


Limestone is extensively used for fertilizing purposes in 
both the mountain districts just referred to, and in the great 
central belt, from Gaston County northward. Its use may 
be and should be largely extended, and it is only too rare 
in some of the eastern counties where it may be particularly 
valuable. Prof. Emmons speaks of a white granular lime- 
stone in Stokes County, found in connection with primary 
rocks, which at Bolejack's quarries, four miles from German- 
town, as well as at Martin's lime-kilns, is extensively quar- 
ried, and makes excellent lime. Prof. Emmons also refers to 
the peculiar limestone of the King's Mountain gold mine, and 
of the Carter gold mine, in Montgomery County, in both 
cases containing gold. Practically, a valuable source for 
lime, and, therefore, an equivalent of limestone, is found, as 
we subsequently show, in the shell marls of the Eastern 


Marble is only moderately abundant in the State, and it is 
found chiefly in the mountain counties west of the Blue Eidge. 
In the earlier examinations of the State, marble is scarcely 
referred to, but recently it has been found more largely in 
the southwest on the completion of the survey of the moun- 
tain counties. 

"The limestone of Valley River is all marble, although it is not every- 
where sufficiently free from flaws and impurities for ornamental uses. There 
are several quarries, however, where the rocks crop out in fine quality and 
grain. The track of the proposed railroad lies along the line of these 
quarries, and will be built for many miles upon beds of solid marble. It is 
of several shades of color, generally white and blue to bluish-gray. I 
have seen specimens also of a fine mottled blue and white variety from the 
head of Valley River. But the finest grained and tinted specimens are 
found on Red Marble Creek and Nantehala River. The most beautiful 
shades are gray and rose to flesh-colored. I have seen no marbles from 
any part of the world superior to these." (Prof. Kerr's Report of 1866.) 

The marble here referred to is a continuation of the well- 
known beautifully variegated Tennessee marble beds. There 
is no reason why a large use of this marble should not be 
made at once for the local consumption, at least. All the 
western part of the State could be supplied at cheaper rates 


than it could possibly be imported from other States or from 
abroad, and the fine polish these variegated marbles admit 
makes them desirable for variety in ornamental building in 
every part of the country. The railroad when laid will sup- 
ply cheap transportation, and the State Geologist earnestly 
urges the practicability of putting these marble beds to im- 
mediate use. 

Granites and Building Stone. 

The greater part of the surface of North Carolina belongs 
to the primary geological formations, and good granite is 
found in many localities, as it is in the New England States, 
and in Virginia. There are two continuous belts of granite 
rocks crossing the State from northeast to southwest ; the first 
or most eastern having Ealeigh nearly central to it. It is 
called the Ealeigh granite, and the noble State House at 
Ealeigh is built of this material. This granite varies from a 
light to a dark gray, and some quarries of it have too much 
felspar, and it undergoes decomposition too readily when ex- 
posed. It extends from Weldon on the northeast by way of 
Ealeigh across the State, to Eichmond County and the 'Yadkin 
at the southwest, in many places furnishing the best possible 
building material. Another belt of granite passes in the 
same direction across the State, having Greensboro and Salis- 
bury central to it. This is more properly to be called sienite, 
or syenitic granite, with felspar too abundant generally to 
make a firm and durable stone. Still, many quarries exist 
where it is a firm building material, equal in grain and tex- 
ture to the best. This belt is full of mineral deposits and 
metallic veins. Gold and copjoer mines are abundant along 
the entire line of the belt. A very friable decomposing 
granite is found in Lincoln and Gaston Counties, west of the 
Catawba, but it is useless for building purposes. 

Between these granite belts there are fine belts of freestone 
or sandstone of red grain, mostly in the vicinity of the Deep 
Eiver coal mines. This freestone is soft and easy to work 
when first opened, but it becomes very hard on exposure. 
Emmons describes the red sandstone underlying the coal of 
Deep Eiver as a freestone, but it is really a formation like the 


brown stone of Connecticut, and all agree that it is a superior 
building material. There is an upper red sandstone above 
the coal, but it is softer and less reliable as a building stone 
than the lower beds. Emmons says, " The lower sandstone 
is red or purplish-red, often deep red, or the color of a well 
burnt brick. It is made up of grains of quartz, which are 
rarely coarse ; its texture is even, and many beds are firm, 
free from marly layers, and constitute an excellent freestone."' 
"The red and purple sandstones abound in the lower red sand- 
stone, with beds suitable for building stone. The color of these 
beds, whatever it may be, is lively and inviting. Indeed, no 
difference can be discovered between those of Deep River and 
those of the Hudson Eiver, or the Connecticut River sand- 
stone. As these beds are extensive they furnish at many 
points stone of a suitable quality for any purpose which may 
be required." (Report of 1856.) The stone marl of the low 
country also makes good building stone, as may be seen at 

Grindstones and "Whetstones are found in many parts 
of the State. The Linville slates of Burke County furnish 
them, and at Adams' Knob, on Johns River, good material 
for grindstones is found. There are some sheets of the sand- 
stones of the Deep River coal-fields that are suited for grind- 
stone. Scythe stones are found on the Xantehala, in Macon 
County. In many places the quartzite rocks become fine 
grained, and well adapted to use as whetstones and hones. 

" In the midst of the gray stone beds, more particularly those which oc- 
cupy a place between the two red sandstones, I have frequently observed 
valuable grits, which are suitable both for coarse and fine grindstones. 
Grindstones have, however, frequently been made from the reddish bed. as 
well as the drab and gray grits. These stones have been made to supply 
the wants of citizens far removed from the means of transporting heavy 
materials." (Emmons 1 Report of 1856.) 

Millstones are particularly frequent and good in many 
parts of North Carolina. The county of Montgomery, Prof. 
Emmons says, can furnish buhrstones of the best quality, 
enough to supply the whole country. It is like the buhrstone 
of Paris, very tough and hard, and perfectly adapted to grind- 
ing wheat. This kind of rock is abundant in many places ; 


that on Laurel Eiver in Madison County is also said to be 
equal to the French, and in Montgomery County, on the 
Yadkin, the same resemblance to the French buhrstone exists. 
This cellular quartz rock is found in nearly all of the western 
counties also. Still another form of millstone is found in the 
conglomerate rocks both above and below the coal of Deep 
Eiver. " Beneath the red sandstone the conglomerate is so 
perfectly consolidated that it forms a valuable millstone." 
In this the rock is composed of cemented quartz pebbles, and 
in splitting it, these split in two, giving a grinding surface 
which is particularly well suited to corn mills, but not so well 
to wheat grinding. There are millstone quarries on Richland 
Creek, and Indian Creek. The best are quarried in Moore 
County, where " they make an excellent corn stone, which, 
when broken from the quarry, split across the pebbles of 
quartz without removing them from their beds." " Several 
quarries are opened in Moore County, and from them the 
country is principally supplied." (Emmons.) 

Serpentine of line quality for ornamental purposes is 
found near Patterson, in the Upper Yadkin Valley. " It is 
of a dark blue color, and beautifully veined with chrysolite, 
furnishing an excellent material for mantels, table tops, and 
other ornamental uses." (Prof. Kerr.) Extensive dykes of 
serpentine exist in many places, which frequently contain 
mineral deposits and metal veins. 

Roofing and flagging slates abound in the belt of slate 
formations which extends through the State from Anson and 
Union Counties, on the south, to the Virginia line on the 
north. This belt is forty miles wide, and it produces a great 
variety of slates useful for practical purposes. 

Soapstone of two varieties is found, one being the soap- 
stone proper, and found in Wake, Moore, Orange and Cald- 
well Counties. The other is a very rare mineral in which 
alumina takes the place of magnesia, forming a white or green- 
ish-white slaty rock, soapy to the feel, and admirably adapted 
to use as lining for stoves, chimney backs, mantel pieces, &c. 
It is perfectly adapted to resist fire. It is abundant at Han- 
cock's mills, on Deep River, and at Troy, in Montgomery 


Fire-clay of the best quality for fire-brick or other uses, 
is found in the beds beneath all the coal seams, both in the 
Deep River and Dan River coal-fields. 

Porcelain clay is found in Montgomery and Chatham 
Counties ; also in Cherokee and Macon Counties of the ex- 
treme southwest. It has been mined largely for transpor- 
tation out of the State, to New York, and even to Europe, to 
be used in the manufacture of the fine kinds of porcelain 
ware. (Prof. Kerr, Report of 1866.) 

Bituminous and oil-bearing- shales exist in the vicinity 
of the coal-beds. Prof. Emmons says, " From thirty to forty 
gallons of crude kerosene oil exist in every ton of these 
slates. They are from fifty to seventy feet thick, and it is 
proper to add that it is a better oil than that furnished from 
the coal." 

Professor Kerr, in 1866, gives the following list of metalli- 
ferous ores, and of earthy minerals and rocks of economical 
value, as being found in considerable quantities in the State: — 

"Under the first division occur gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, and 
tungsten ; and here, for convenience, may be added the diamond ; and 
under the second may be mentioned as occurring in this State under such 
circumstances as render them economically valuable, coal, marl, limestone, 
marble, architectural granite, sandstone, porphyry, firestone, buhrstone, 
grindstone grit, whetstone slate, roofing slate, alum, and copperas slates, 
soapstone, serpentine, agahnatolite, a form of soapstone, procelain clay, fire- 
clay, graphite, or plumbago, garnet, barytes, manganese, oil slates, and 
chromate of iron." 

We have not been able, with the space at command in this 
brief statement of the resources of the State, to give as much 
of detailed description of all these as we desired, and there 
still remain to be noticed the 

Native Mineral Fertilizers ; Marl, and Phosphates. 

Marl is one of the leading elements of native wealth in the 
soils of the eastern part of the State, being confined, of course, 
to the low country, the sand plains and swamp lands. It 
appears to be a continuation of the New Jersey, Maryland, 
and Virginia marl beds, so far as the green sand marl is con- 
cerned ; and the phosphate marls of Brunswick County are a 


continuation of the rich phosphate beds found near Charles- 
ton. Prof. Kerr says: — 

" This valuable mineral is literally scattered over most of the sea-coast 
counties of the State, and is found in every degree of purity and consolida- 
tion, from a mere aggregation of loose shells to the most compact limestone, 
suitable for building or for burning into lime. The famous bathstone of 
London is matched by some of these beds. The marl is generally found 
near the surface, and is easily accessible." 

Dr. Emmons and Mr. Ruffin have very thoroughly described 
the marl beds of the eastern counties in their reports on the 
Swamp Lands, and have pointed out the distinction between 
the more valuable classes, and some that appear to be deficient 
in potash, or to have an excess of injurious salts. Professor 
Emmons describes three classes of these marls, one, called 
stone marl, is composed of small shells cemented by silica. 
It is hard, making a good building stone, and even good mill- 
stones. The inclosure of the cemetery at Newbern is of this 
rock, and it has a fine appearance, giving evidence also of 
great durability. Professor Emmons claims that it is superior 
to granite for fine walls, and that, in house walls, it has the 
merit of being always dry. Another variety of this stone 
marl is a granular cream-colored rock, almost destitute of shells. 
It is soft when first cut from the quarry, but soon hardens. 
This is a good building stone, and in some places may be 
burnt into good lime, but generally it will not make strong 
lime. It is abundant in Wayne County, near Goldsboro. 
The stone marl first mentioned above, underlies Newbern and 

Next is the green sand marl, similar to that of New Jersey. 
The best beds of this are at Black Rock, on the Cape Fear 
River, twenty-five miles above Wilmington. It extends 
across the State northeastward, at about the same distance 
from the sea, appearing at a great many points in the direc- 
tion of Kinston, Tarboro, and other places in this range. In 
some places it is very good, but generally is not equal to the 
best of New Jersey green sand marls. Colonel Clark, three 
miles above Tarboro, has used this green sand marl with great 
success, as have many others. 

Again, a white shell marl is found, composed of light cream- 


colored grains, with fragments of shells, corals, &c. Much of 
this is soft, and easily shovelled from the beds. It often 
makes good lime by burning, and therefore answers a double 
purpose. There is a narrow belt of this marl only, stretching 
across several of the eastern counties, through Hanover, Ons- 
low, Jones, and Craven Counties. It is found at Wilmington, 
and on the Neuse above Newbern. Mr. Wadsworth, of Craven 
County, certifies to the best results from its use, and it is evi- 
dent that the abundance of lime it contains must render it 
very valuable in reclaiming worn-out lands. Lastly, there is 
a shell marl proper, composed very largely of undecomposed 
marine shells. This is less valuable than the preceding, yet 
when they are wanting, it will furnish lime cheaply, with 
some phosphates and potash. It is found in the same general 
localities, and is sometimes used direct, and in other cases 
burned into lime. 

"With this vast store of marls of the three varieties underly- 
ing almost all the eastern counties, there should be no diffi- 
culty in keeping up the productiveness of the soil in that part 
of the State, and no difficulty in reclaiming such lands as have 
heretofore been exhausted. Though they lack the potash, or 
the amount of potash found in the green sand marls of New 
Jersey, they contain more lime, by a large proportion, and 
can be put to a greater variety of valuable uses. 

Extensive phosphate marl beds, composed chiefly of ani- 
mal remains, have recently been found in South Carolina, 
and through two or three of the lower counties of North 
Carolina, which form a bed of bones and other remains similar 
in position to the marl beds, but vastly more rich in fertilizing 
elements. The phosphates, and particularly phosphate of 
lime, appear to be the leading mineral elements, and so far as 
they have been developed; they justify high expectations as 
to their value, in reclaiming the soils of both States. In fact, 
their wealth of fertilizing elements is so great as to repay 
shipping to distant points in other States. Three or four of 
the lower counties are known to contain these beds of animal 
remains, and further inquiry may show that they extend to 
Newbern, or beyond. Very high expectations are indulged 
as to their value, as they are now being opened in the vicinity 


of Charleston, and from recent openings in Brunswick County, 
almost exactly the same formations are disclosed. Altogether, 
it does riot appear that any part of this State is essentially 
deficient in the means of fertilizing and renewing soils, and 
particularly the eastern counties, with their marl and muck 
deposits, aided by the phosphate beds of animal remains, 
ought to be sustained in a high condition of agricultural 

Mineral Springs. 

The geological formations in North Carolina are highly 
favorable to the development of mineral springs, particularly 
in the central and western counties — and some form of such 
springs, including a fair representation of the red and white 
sulphur, the chalybeate and alum, and also of some one of the 
varieties of warm springs, will be found in almost every 

The most conspicuous of these springs that have attained 
celebrity, and have become resorts for visitors, are the Catawba 
"White Sulphur, in the north part of Catawba County; Wil- 
son's White and Ked Sulphur Springs near Shelby, in Cleve- 
land County, and the Piedmont Springs in Burke County, fif- 
teen miles west of Morganton. These are east of the Blue 
Ridge : and west of it we have the celebrated warm springs 
of the French Broad River, 35 miles west of Asheville; the 
Deaver White Sulphur Springs, five miles only from Ashe- 
ville, and the Million Springs, nine miles north of Asheville. 
There are other springs in the vicinity of Asheville, and also 
east of the Blue Ridge, but none so conspicuous as those men- 
tioned above. 

In the eastern or northeastern part of the State the long- 
known Shocco Springs of Warren County are the most im- 
portant. They are located nine miles from the Warrenton 
depot, of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. This was for 
many years the most fashionable resort in the south, and it still 
deserves attention. Jones' Spring is in the same vicinity, and 
Kittrell's Spring, in Granville County, is another reputed to 
be valuable for its waters. This last is but one mile from the 
railroad. All these are chalybeate waters, and though less 


attractive now than the sulphur springs of the western part 
of the State, are highly valued bj all who have used the 
waters for many forms of ill-health requiring tonic treatment. 

The springs of the Catawba are well fitted up and much 
frequented as fashionable resorts. The Shelby, or Wilson's 
White and Eed Sulphur, of Cleveland County, said to be the 
finest spring of its kind in the world, is easily reached by the 
new railroad from Charlotte by way of Lincolnton, which is 
now completed nearly to Shelby. It is also accessible from 
the south by way of Yorkville or Spartansburg, South Caro- 
lina. The Catawba White Sulphur in the north part of Ca- 
tawba County, is near the railroad from Salisbury to Morgan- 
ton. Both these are celebrated resorts, with white and red sul- 
phur, and chalybeate waters in the immediate vicinity, and they 
are well filled up for the reception of visitors. There are 
also, near Shelby, the less known springs called McBrier's 
and Patterson's. These are all in no respect inferior to the 
best Virginia sulphur springs. 

The Piedmont Springs of Burke County are well worth 
visiting because of the various attractions of scenery, water- 
falls, the celebrated Table Rock, &c. There are also chaly- 
beate springs in Stokes County called "Piedmont Springs," 
which are much resorted to. They are near the celebrated 
Pilot Mountain. 

West of the Blue Ridge, near Asheville, are very attractive 
sulphur springs, much praised by Colton, in his "Mountain 
Scenery of North Carolina." The town of Asheville, and all 
in its vicinity, are highly eulogized by all who have written 
in regard to that part of the State ; and particularly by Colton 
in the work above cited, and by Lanrnan, in his " Alleghany 
Mountains." At the Warm Springs, on the French Broad 
below Asheville, there are "more attractions to the seeker of 
pleasure, leaving out of view the invalid, than probably at 
any other watering place in the south," — so writes one visitor 
in 1858. The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 102°, 
and a great variety of mineralized waters abound in springs of 
the vicinity. " The Warm Springs are annually visited by a 
large number of fashionable and health-seeking people from 


all the Southern States. . . . As a resort they have no supe- 
rior in any State." — (Golton.) 

Watering-Places of the Atlantic Coast. 

"We cannot leave the subject without referring to the several 
localities along the coast which have already been more or less 
occupied as watering-places and summer resorts. At Smith - 
ville, the outlet of Cape Fear River, there is a fine beach on 
the broad salt water bay, and many historical as well as pic- 
turesque attractions are within easy reach. Masonboro Sound, 
on the coast in front of Wilmington, also has a fine beach ; 
as have Middle Sound, and Wrightsville Sound, in the same 

At Beaufort, the terminus of the railroad from Raleigh and 
JSTewbern, there are fine facilities for sea bathing, and the beach 
is much resorted to. Carolina City is a point on the beach 
south of Newbern. 

The peculiar lakes of the low country near the coast are 
places of winter resort, both for health and for sporting. 
Waccamaw Lake, at a point on the railroad thirty-four miles 
west of Wilmington, is visited by invalids in winter, and at 
Flemington Station there is a well-kept house for visitors. The 
severity of winter cold is greatly modified at these locations, 
without the roughness of the open sea-shore. The finest of 
these lakes have a clear sand beach and perfectly pure waters, 
rendering them healthy and attractive as resorts, while they 
abound with vast numbers of wild fowl at that season. Wac- 
camaw Lake, thirty miles from Wilmington, is eight or ten 
miles in length and six miles wide, nearly. Further north, 
between Beaufort and Newbern, there are three or four of 
these lakes, the largest being Catfish Lake and Great Lake. 
In Hyde County is the celebrated Matamuskeet Lake, the 
largest of all, and surrounded by much fine cultivation. Alli- 
gator Lake is in the same county, and on its northern border 
are Phelps and Pungo Lakes. Drummond Lake of the Dis- 
mal Swamp is just at the Virginia line. 

"We shall refer to these lakes and the adjacent salt water 
sounds in some notices of the fisheries and fowl shooting, 


which have become a regular and profitable business of the 
whole line of coast in North Carolina. 

Mountain Scenery. 

The mountains of North Carolina have long been objects 
of attraction to scientific men in consequence of the interest 
felt in them as the highest elevations in the United States east 
of the Mississippi, and of the important bearing they have on 
various questions in physical science. They have been less 
known to tourists and pleasure seekers than they deserve to 
be, not only for the general attractions of mountain scenery, 
but for peculiar features that make them very conspicuous. 
They are the highest mountains of the whole Alleghany chain, 
the highest peak exceeding the. height of Mount Washington 
about 700 feet ; Clingman's peak being 6941 feet, and Mount 
Washington 6226 feet high. Mount Mitchell, for some years 
supposed to be the highest peak, is 6732 feet. The Eoan 
mountain is 6306 feet, and the general average of the Roan 
and Yellow Mountains, in Mitchell County, is over 6000 feet. 
Southwest of these, in Hayward and Jackson counties, the 
Balsam Mountains are fully as high, the high chain of the 
Balsam averaging 6000 feet and the Eichland Balsam being 
6225 feet high. The researches of Prof. Mitchell, Prof. Guyot, 
and Senator Clingman have shown that there are more than 
twenty peaks rising much above 6000 feet, and that the whole 
mass of these mountains far surpasses all others east of the 
Eocky Mountains in magnitude. They were from valleys or 
plains already more than 2000 feet above the sea, and consti- 
tute half a dozen distinct chains, most of which run from the 
Blue Ridge across the valleys to the Alleghany range, called 
the Iron or Great Smoky Eange, which forms the western 
boundary of the State. 

All this region of lofty mountains is easily reached from 
Morganton, to which point the railroad is already built, and 
by Swananoa gap to Asheville. On the north of this gap are 
the lofty Black Mountains, with Mitchell's and Clingman's 
Peaks, and in the same line, further north, the Eoan and Yel- 
low Mountains are the great feature. These are in Mitchell 


County. Southwest are the lofty Balsam Mountains, south of 
the French Broad and of the Big Pigeon River. These are 
difficult of access, yet almost as high as the Black Mountains 
north of Swananoa. Prof. Guyot recently describes some of 
these peaks, which are reached from Sevierville, Tennessee, 
through a "road gap" itself 5,271 feet above the sea. Near 
this gap is the Bull Head Mountain, or Triple Mountain, 6636 
feet high; and but a short distance from it, six miles south- 
westward of the gap, is " Smoky Dome," or Clingman's Moun- 
tain, 6660 feet high. The chains and peaks of this vicinity 
are usually known as the Balsam Mountains, a distinction 
given because of the dense forests of balsam firs with which 
they are covered to their very summits. 

This peculiarity of the mountain summits is noticeable over 
all the high ranges. They are always clothed with forests, 
and several of the highest ranges have the dense black forest 
of balsam firs, so often referred to, and very rare, if not wholly 
unknown, in any other part of the world. They are therefore 
conspicuous and novel features of American scenery, which 
persons of leisure or research should not fail to see. Their 
surroundings are also particularly romantic and full of in- 
terest. The road by which they are approached passes Old 
Fort, a celebrated fort long before the Revolution, maintained 
as a protection against the Indians. It is in the upper valley 
of the Catawba, in McDowell County, a few miles from Swa- 
nanoa Gap of the Blue Ridge. This mountain region may also 
be readily reached by way of the Tennessee Valley, and the 
railroads on that side, taking a good road up the valley of the 
French Broad River to Asheville. 

A pleasant book of reference to mountain scenery in this 
State will be found in Colton's " Scenery of the Mountains 
of Western North Carolina," which, although printed in 
1859, is very fresh and applicable to the present state of 
things. The great attractions of the Pilot Mountain and its 
vicinity, and more particularly of the magnificent scenery 
of Burke and Caldwell Counties east of the Blue Ridge, and 
Mitchell, Yancey, and Buncombe Counties, on the west, ad- 
joining, would require much space to describe. The cele- 
brated Falls of the Linville River, with the surrounding 


cliffs and peaks, Table Bock, Hawksbill, and others, are un- 
equalled for wild and picturesque grandeur. And north of 
Swananoa gap the whole lofty group of the Black Mountain 
peaks is close at hand, forming not only the highest moun- 
tains east of the Mississippi, but by far the most attractive as 
novelties to a visitor. 

Linville Falls. 

Among the attractions of the State there should be noticed 
more at length some of the conspicuous falls of the mountain 
region, chief among which, probably, are the Linville Falls 
already mentioned. They are on the Linville Eiver, as it leaves 
the mountains, twenty-eight miles from Morganton, and five 
miles from Childsville, near the northwestern corner of 
Burke County. There are several broken cascades of various 
heights, ending in one of more than 100 feet perpendicular 
fall. The scenery in the vicinity is remarkable, the river 
being bordered for some distance by cliffs of enormous height, 
in some cases more than 1200 feet. Below the falls are va- 
rious cliffs, named Table Eock, Hawksbill, Bynum's Bluff, 
Ginger- cake Eocks, Chimney Bocks, etc. Between Hawks- 
bill and Table Eock the bed of the Linville Eiver is 1200 feet 
in perpendicular descent below their summits. Colton, Lan- 
man, and several other writers have eulogized the scenes of 
the vicinity of Linville Falls in the highest terms. 

As the road to Morganton is now so easy, that pleasant 
town can be made a point of departure to the Linville Eiver, 
to Grandfather Mountain on the north ; to North Cove, a re- 
markable place, a few miles directly west of Linville ; and to 
the great peaks of the Black Mountains of Mitchell County, 
still but five or six miles farther directly west. This road is 
quite as short and easy as any other to those celebrated 

Mitchell Falls, located on the eastern slope of Blue Eidge, 
near the Hickory ISTut Gap road, is one of the most beauti- 
fully picturesque scenes to be found on this continent. The 
water falls over a solid rock three hundred feet high ; trick- 
ling down its sides, empties itself into three large pools, and 


from thence down the mountain sides. The pools are clear 
as crystal; no bottom has ever been found to them. 

Of places of interest properly belonging in the description 
of mountain scenery, Flat Eock, in Hudson County, and south 
of Hickory Nut Gap, is a picturesque place; and on the east 
foot of the Blue Eidge, in the same vicinity, is an attractive 
place called Pleasant Gardens. 

Rivers, Falls, and Water-Power. 

The rivers of North Carolina drain large areas in each case, 
the greater breadth of the country east of the Blue Eidge 
giving them a long sweep from the mountain ranges in which 
they rise, before reaching the sea. The Eoanoke drains, at 
its sources as the Ban, four or five counties in North Caro- 
lina, and as many in Virginia, before it finally leaves the 
State in Caswell County to make a long detour in Yirginia, 
returning to North Carolina again above "Weldon and Gaston. 
The Dan Eiver alone is important/furnishing both water 
transportation and water power in Stokes and Eockingham 
Counties. Iron works, tobacco-manufacturing, and shipping, 
are the principal industries here, their general market being 
at Danville, just across the line of Virginia. At the junction 
of the Staunton Eiver it becomes the Eoanoke, which has 
shoals and rapids for some twenty miles of its course, affording 
abundant water power at Gaston and Weldon. Prof. Emmons 
says that " the falls of the Eoanoke, at Weldon, furnish a 
large water power, in part occupied, but capable of moving a 
much greater amount of machinery." A canal around the 
falls connects the navigation of the upper part of the river. 
The fall at Weldon is fifteen feet, and at Gaston there are 
rapids which might be improved. 

On Tar Eiver there are falls at Louisburg, Franklin 
County ; at Taylor's Mills, south of Nashville, Nash County, 
and at Eocky Mount, where the Wilmington and Weldon 
Eailroad crosses. 

The Neuse Eiver is much larger, and rising in a hilly 
country some eight or nine hundred feet above sea level, it 
furnished good water power as far up as in Person County, at 
Daniels' Mills; again at Manteo Mills, a few miles north of 


Raleigh ; at Neuse's Mills, six or seven miles east of Raleigh ; 
at Watson's Mills, 20 miles southeast of Raleigh ; and at 
Smithfield, a little farther down, and just below the point 
where the railroad from Goldsboro crosses. 

The Cape Fear River, with its two great branches, the Haw 
and Deep Rivers, affords very ample water power at various 
points. As low as Elizabethtown, in Bladen County, there is a 
slight fall of the Cape Fear; and at Smiley's Falls, in Harriet 
County, there is a fall of near 30 feet in three miles over the 
primitive rocks which mark the boundary of the low country. 
The Buckhorn Falls are 25 miles farther up the river, at the 
line of Chatham County. Here the river falls 14 feet in two 
rapids, affording ample power. A few miles farther up is 
Haywood, at the junction of the Deep and Haw Rivers. 
Taking the Haw first, Ave find it crowded with falls, there 
being 20 mill sites in a distance of 60 miles. Of the well- 
known mills on and near the Haw, there are Hadley's, Ruf- 
fin's, Holt's, Curtis's, and the High Falls Factory ; all but the 
first named being in Alamance County. Emmons states that 
the lowest fall on the Haw, of ten feet in the two miles above 
its mouth at Haywood, has capacity to drive 25,000 spindles, 
and that the power of the river, as a whole, is equal to 
500,000 spindles. It also runs through a rich country, 
" cotton and wheat are the staples of the lower half of its 
course, and tobacco of the upper." 

The Deep River branch is scarcely inferior to the Haw in 
water-power capacity. At Jones' Falls, just above Haywood, 
there is a fine water power, the fall being 24 feet in 3000, or 
little more than half a mile. This point is now called Lock- 
ville. For 20 miles or more beyond this point, through 
the Deep River coal-field, there is little or no fall ; but 
above that there are five — Farr's Mills and Dixon's Mills in 
Moore County, and in Randolph County, Brown's, Mofnt's, 
Tryon's, and many other mills, there being, in addition, six 
mills or mill sites at and near Franklinsville, in as many 
miles. Emmons declares that these six sites have a capacity 
to drive 35,000 spindles at the lowest stages of water. The 
Deep River district is rich in cotton and grain, and its upper 
part runs through the best mining districts of the State, the 


group of gold, copper, and iron mines in Guilford County, 
south and west of Greensboro. Little River, a tributary of 
the Cape Fear, in Cumberland County, has sufficient fall at 
two or three places to afford mill sites, the most important 
being Elliott's Mills, ten or fifteen miles north of Fayetteville. 

The Yadkin is the next great river ; below the North Caro- 
lina line it forms the great Pedee. The Yadkin sweeps 
almost all over the State, its upper waters running northeast for 
50 miles in Caldwell and Wilkes ; then east for 50 miles more 
through Wilkes and Yadkin Counties, to a point not 20 miles 
from the Virginia line, called East Bend, where it turns sud- 
denly south, to go through the State toward the sea. Its 
whole length in North Carolina Emmons gives as 350 miles. 
Ckeraw, in South Carolina, is the head of steamboat naviga- 
tion, but barges can be taken up as far as the Narrows in the 
northeast corner of Stanley County. From a point five miles 
above the Narrows it is practicable to make it navigable for 
150 miles to Wilkesboro, Wilkes County. There is little 
water power available below the rapids at the Narrows, but for 
ten or fifteen miles above this point there is the best oppor- 
tunity to employ the great body of water. At Milledgeville, 
or Burredge Factory, there is a fall of 13 feet, and a rapid 
still above this having nearly the same fall. One mile below 
Milledgeville is another rapid having 13 feet fall, and yet 
another at the head of the Narrows (Emmons). At Trading- 
Ford, nearly up to the railroad crossing to Salisbury, Em- 
mons insists that there is a most valuable site for a manufac- 
turing town. In the upper portions of the river there are 
many other natural sites for water power, and all the tributa- 
ries afford the usual local mill sites. The South Yadkin is 
the best of these, and is really a valuable manufacturing 
stream, having a fall of 22 feet at a locality highly favorable 
to erecting mills and factories. One is now erected at the 
junction of Rocky Creek, and a number of mills are found in 
the vicinity. The falls of the South Yadkin are five or six 
miles above its mouth, and about 10 miles north of Salisbury. 
Valuable beds of iron ore are in the vicinity, and it is also a 
rich agricultural region. 

The Catawba is, however, the most remarkable river for 


the water power it affords, taken in connection with its tribu- 
taries, the Little Catawba, Broad Eiver, and Green Eiver, 
with Linville, and other of its upper branches. From 
Tuckasege Ford upward, the main river, for many miles, is a 
succession of rapids, available for power, the principal one 
being at the Horse Shoe Bend, in the northeastern part of 
Gaston County. A short distance below this' bend, at Moun- 
tain Island, is a fall of 22 feet, affording a power already 
improved by the erection of a cotton factory. At the Horse 
Shoe Bend the fall is 32 feet, in a circuit which brings the 
two extremities of the bend within one mile of each other. 
Emmons states (Kept, of 1856) that the river is here 600 feet 
wide, and that a permanent mill race can be formed, 100 feet 
wide, 4 feet deep, and one mile long, by the construction of a 
wins: dam in the main river. He further claims that this 
water "power would be peculiarly favored as a manufacturing 
location, in consequence of its safety from freshets, its health- 
fulness and conveniences for the erection of buildings, and its 
accessibility to other points, and to materials for use of any 
works to be erected. It is claimed that the river above may 
easily be made navigable, and may be employed for the 
transportation of ores, raw cotton, or any required materials. 
In Emmons' Geological Eeport for 1856 will be found much 
more in explanation of the great advantages of this series of 
rapids at and below the Bend, the author of that report claim- 
ing that a great manufacturing city will ultimately be located 
there. At SherrilPs Ford of the Catawba, in Catawba County,, 
there are other falls ample for use as water power ; and still 
above, at frequent intervals to Morganton, there are many 
others. The railroad recently completed traverses the valley 
of the Catawba here for a long distance, affording convenient 
and cheap access to any point. And the Linville Eiver, as 
its chief upper tributary, abounds in mill sites, as it descends 
from the flanks of the Blue Eidge. The Little Catawba is 
much praised by Prof. Emmons and others, for its available 
water power, almost every part of it falling with so much 
rapidity as to afford a constant succession of mill sites. The 
most noted of these is the High Shoal of the Catawba, as it is 
called, where the river falls 23 feet over a bed of gneiss.. 


Attached to the water power is an extensive property known 
as the High Shoal property, which originally embraced ten 
square miles of land, with many gold, copper, and iron mines. 
Iron made here is of the best quality, and there are a number 
of cotton factories, woolen mills, and iron works along the 
river to a point above Lincolnton. To show how much the 
water power of the Catawba and its tributaries was developed 
in 1860, we cite from the census the number of cotton and 
woolen mills, iron works, and other power mills returned for 
six counties in which the river lies : — ■ 





of goods made 

Cotton mills 

. 11 




Woolen mills . 

. 6 




Iron works 

. 12 



Flouring mills 

. 88 



Saw mills 

. 19 



Several of these establishments were large, ranking with 
factories of the larger class, and the facilities for establishing 
such factories are evidently ample. Prof. Emmons, in his 
report of 1856, says what is far more forcible in its applica- 
tion to the present state of affairs there : — 

" The climate of North Carolina is well adapted to the manufacture of 
cotton in all its branches. The cost of maintaining laborers is much less 
than in New England. Fuel is plenty, its growth rapid, and into what- 
ever channel a manufacturing spirit may be turned, it has the most flatter- 
ing prospects of success. It is not now, as in former years, when ways to 
market were unopened. Then the utmost that could be done was confined 
to the immediate section of country in which they were located. As it is, 
this home market will be retained, while the markets upon the sea-board 
may be competed for with every reason to expect success ; for the interior 
of North Carolina can manufacture goods cheaper, by far, than New 
England or New York. Her natural advantages put her upon vantage 
ground, and it only requires enterprise, and the application of that capital 
which she now has invested out of her territory, to place her among the 
foremost of the manufacturing States." 

Quoting farther from that report, we find the following- 
allusions. Impressed with the advantages offered to the in- 
vestment of capital in bringing this cheap power, cheap labor, 
and cheap materials together, he says : — 

" When the whole field is brought in review, all must admit that this 
most important power is distributed over the midland counties in such a 
way as to give to each section a participation in all the advantages which 


a power of that kind is capable of conferring. While the rivers and their 
tributaries "water the soil and render it productive, they still furnish a sur- 
plus not only for the every-day wants of man to prepare his lumber and 
grind his grain for domestic consumption, but enough also for manufactur- 
ing the cotton and the ores for a home or a distant market. An inspection 
of a map of North Carolina shows a very advantageous distribution of the 
rivers. East of the Blue Ridge it is traversed obliquely by seven large 
rivers, all of which interlock with each other. Even the hilly and moun- 
tainous New England cannot claim a larger and more advantageous supply 
for the promotion of agriculture and the arts. New England has not 
suffered her advantages to go to waste. North Carolina has been too quiet 
and too indifferent to her advantages ; but the time of her indifference is 

We may properly mention here some of the advantages 
which works driven by water-power would possess, in compa- 
rison with Massachusetts, and the greater part of New York. 
In North Carolina the whole year would be available for 
active business, and the winter, which so often obstructs, if it 
does not wholly stop work at the north, would be an uninter- 
rupted season of activity. The rivers would be full, without 
being frozen, and the bracing temperature and longer daylight 
would make the management of a large factory much more 
successful at that season. Iron ores, which cannot be mined 
and hauled for six months in northern New York, can be 
handled in any way desired, probably, on every day of the 
winter; certainly there could be very few and slight inter- 
ruptions of this season of activity. And in summer, the heat 
is little, if at all, greater than in New York or Pennsylvania. 
It is not probable that the season would ever be interrupted, 
or, at least, that these factories can be worked as nearly the 
entire year as in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Winter work 
in mines and iron works is particularly desirable, and greatly 
facilitates the business of a year in such establishments. 
There is no State where beds of magnetic iron ore are found 
of such magnitude, that admits winter work fully, New Jersey 
being the best, but yet having very severe winter weather. 

Power Manufacturing in North Carolina. 

The extent of the manufacturing driven by power, and 
chiefly by water-power, was very considerable in 1860, and we 
give the following results of the census of that year, to show 


how much, under the state of things then prevailing, could 
be done. At present everything invites, not only to the re- 
newal of all that has heretofore existed, but to an application 
of capital and skill to the improvement of the natural advan- 
tages. Power is cheap, first; and next, raw materials and 
labor are cheap — indeed, all these are available at half the 
aggregate cost of working a mill in New England, and, when 
put in motion, more can be done with them, in consequence 
of the favorable climate. 

It is impossible to say that all the classes of mills here 
named were driven by water power, without the use of steam. 
Probably quite a number had some proportion of steam- 
power, yet not to anything like the extent that would have 
been required in any northern State. In 1860, there were 
the following numbers of mills, persons employed, and aggre- 
gates of production in certain leading manufactures : — 

Capital invested. 

Employed. Value of Produc 



Cotton mills . . . . 






Copper mines . . . 






Flour mills .... 






Gold mines .... 






Iron works .... 






Saw and planing mills 






Machinery, steam 






Woolen mills . . . 






Paper mills . . . 






Oil mills . . , . 






Rice mills . . . . 








The number of these establishments is greater than the 
proper proportion for the capital invested, or value of pro- 
duct, and probably the present condition of the State repre- 
sents the same disproportion in even a greater degree. The 
largest cotton factories are distributed through the following 
named counties : five in Alamance County, on the Haw Eiver ; 
one in Cabarrus County, on Rocky River; one in Caldwell, 
on Linville River ; two in Catawba, on Catawba River ; one 
in Cleveland, on the First Broad; one in Craven, on the 


Neuse ; seven in Cumberland, mostly at Fayetteville, on the 
Cape Fear, which employed 122 men and 367 women, repre- 
senting an invested capital of $287,000 ; one in Edgecombe, 
on Tar River; Forsyth County has one large cotton factory, 
employing 54 persons, and one woolen factory, employing 55 
persons, both located at Salem ; Gaston County has three cot- 
ton factories, on the Little Catawba, with a capital of $133,000, 
and employing 205 persons ; Iredell has two, employing 53 
persons ; Lincoln County one, with 27 persons employed ; 
Mecklenberg with one cotton mill, working 17 persons, and 
a woolen mill, working 85 persons ; Orange County one, 
employing 50 persons ; Randolph County five, employing 223 
persons, and making $149,486 in value of goods ; Rocking- 
ham County one, employing 105 persons ; Richmond one, 
employing 41 persons ; Surrey two, employing 49 persons. 

General Development of Manufactures. 

What has already been done in manufactures in North 
Carolina is, at least, a reliable proof of what may be done ; 
and we therefore cite some general facts from the Census of 
1860, with the assurance that, in spite of the confusion and 
losses of the past few years in many of these classes, the pre- 
sent condition of affairs is an improvement on the figures here 
given. The truth is that, in many parts of the State, unusual 
natural facilities for manufacturing exist — cheap power, 
cheap materials, and cheap labor ; and, under such circum- 
stances, many works are started, which, to be successful in 
the degree understood to mean success in the Northern States, 
need the strong hands of capitalists, and the direction of 
skilful superintendents. 

The following leading classes of manufactures were re- 
ported in 1860, excluding from the official table some thirty 
or forty small items. 



Employed. Value of 

No. Capital. Men. Women. product. 

Agricultural implements 22 $76,250 100 ... $86,155 

Boot and shoe making 62 68,000 167 9 150,955 

Brick-making 15 62 640 199 6 75,050 

Carriages 92 441,469 656 10 589,839 

Cooperage 49 42,951 125 ... 126,120 

Copper mining 2 80,000 210 10 105,000 

Cotton manufactories 39 1,272,750 440 1315 1,046,047 

Fisheries, shad and herring 32 67,312 698 134 117,259 

Flour and meal 639 1,719,283 814 3 4,354,309 

Furniture 40 50,170 84 3 72,409 

Gold mining 9 224,200 396 6 97,199 

Hats, clothing, etc 11 3,925 26 ... 33,470 

Iron, pig, har, and blooms 25 165,250 129 ... 99,656 

Iron manufactories, other 63 84,950 174 ... 120,410 

Leather, tanneries 171 348,959 363 ... 413,364 

Liquors, distilleries 94 48,563 119 .. 117,282 

Lumber, sawed and planed 335 780,420 1028 11 1,074,003 

Machinery, steam engines 6 455,846 142 ... 116,150 

Oils, linseed and rosin 7 11,400 10 ... 18,000 

Paper 6 121,850 54 35 165,703 

Printing, newspaper and book ... 13 42,050 81 ... 87,950 

Bice cleaning 10 14,700 18 23 86,926 

Saddlery and harness 44 49,629 98 ... 99,593 

Sash, doors, and blinds 5 30,000 38 1 56,900 

Shingles 17 196,960 281 13 97,010 

Ships and boats 3 6,900 26 ... 10,100 

Staves, spokes, etc 4 6,000 28 ... 18,325 

Tar 28 6,000 45 ... 44,300 

Turpentine, crude 1065 939,448 2010 1 952,542 

Turpentine, distilled 461 1,113,778 1754 10 4,358,878 

Timber 94 85,423 221 ... 121,093 

Tin, copper, and sheet iron 15 - 56,870 44 ... 60,374 

Tobacco, manufactured 97 646,730 1084 277 1,117,099 

Wagons and carts 48 42,900 144 ... 82,650 

Woolen goods 28 242,900 137 140 331,133 

Totals (including smaller items) 3689 $9,693,603 12,106 2111 $16,678,698 

These are very creditable aggregates, and they show a large 
amount of manufacturing industry in the sea-board counties, 
where turpentine, lumber, shingles, rice, and other products 
of those counties abound. In these establishments steam 
power is much employed, and with the recent changes and 
improvements going on in those counties, a much larger 
amount of steam power will be employed. Fuel being cheap, 
and the transportation of steam machinery easy, a mill for 
cutting timber and lumber can be placed where the timber is 
most abundant, the finished products being then brought, by 


water or rail, to the most convenient shipping point. Exten- 
sive manufactures of wooden wares, staves, etc. of the very 
valuable cedar, cypress, and pine of the coast counties, will 
inevitably spring up. These are already in progress near 
Wilmington, in the hands of the Green Swamp Lumber Com- 

Tobacco Manufacture. — In the interior two or three 
classes of hand-labor factories have a fair degree of promi- 
nence, particularly tobacco factories, tanneries, and distille- 
ries. Tobacco was manufactured in 1860 to the value of 
$1,117,099; and, at the present time, while the quantity is 
less, probably, the increase in value renders the total as great 
as then. Tobacco is not so largely cultivated as it was for- 
merly, yet in many counties, among which, in 1867, Franklin, 
Davis, and Person are named in the reports of the Agricul- 
tural Departments, tobacco is still a leading product. The 
manufacturing establishments existing in 1860 were princi- 
pally in Rockingham, Granville, Stokes, Caswell, Davie, Sur- 
rey, and two or three other counties, showing that the chief 
business of the State in tobacco is in the counties near the 
border of Virginia. The Dan River Valley, and other tribu- 
taries of the Roanoke, appear to be the favorite localities for 
tobacco cultivation. 

Tanneries are numerous and important as local manufac- 
tures, but none appear of magnitude sufficient to provide 
leather for export out of the State. They are quite equally 
distributed among the interior and western counties, oak bark 
being abundant and cheap. The addition of sumac, prepared 
from the native sumac of Virginia and all adjacent States, is 
now being made in nearly all the markets ; and this would 
form a valuable resource for exportation, as well as for local 
use. In 1860 there were 171 tanneries, producing leather to 
the value of $413,364. 

Turpentine manufactures, though found in many coun- 
ties, are chiefly in Bladen, New Hanover, Cumberland, 
Craven, and Duplin Counties ; in New Hanover alone there 
were, in 1860, 332 establishments, for both crude and dis- 
tilled, producing $897,887 in value. Four turpentine distil- 
ling establishments in this county made $716,600 in value. 


The production centering about Wilmington, and in the 
counties above it on the Cape Fear River, is four-fifths of the 
entire product of the State. The greater facilities for trans- 
portation, and the standard market always existing at Wil- 
mington, concur in bringing the business to this point. 

Lumber and shingles. — In the recent improvements in- 
augurated in the timber-producing counties near the coast, 
the manufacture of lumber and shingles has been system- 
atized, and, in many cases, placed in the hands of energetic 
and successful companies. By the aid of a fair proportion of 
capital they are able to put a vigorous producing force at 
work, and to prepare, for northern and foreign markets, from 
$150,000 to $350,000 in value of shingles, lumber, and timber, 
in a year for each company. The Green Swamp Company, 
with its mills for cutting lumber and shingles at Bolton, on 
the railroad, 27 miles southwest of Wilmington, and H. B. 
Short's undertaking at the head of Waccamaw Lake, are the 
most successful of these establishments, and an illustration of 
the facility with which associated capital can make the abun- 
dant raw material of these timber swamps profitable. 

It may be convenient here to refer to the price of freights 
of lumber from Wilmington to northern cities as compared 
with interior transportation from the Western States to the 
same markets. The cost per thousand feet of ordinary lum- 
ber, from Wilmington to New York or Philadelphia, varies 
from $7 to $9; Avhile from any point on Lake Erie to New 
York or Philadelphia, the cost would be about $100 per car 
load, averaging 8000 feet each. Not only is the quality of 
lumber better suited to the general consumption of the sea- 
board markets, where the demand for resinous pine increases 
as its greater durability becomes more important, but the 
facility of production and shipment in large quantities in- 
creases rather than diminishes. The northern pine districts 
waste rapidly, and each year become more difficult of access, 
with increasing cost. of transportation to all the markets. 


Cost of Labor. 

In connection with the manufacturing statements previous- 
ly given, should follow some account of the cost of labor, 
which is the chief power, after all, in manufacturing. We 
have previously said that in consequence of the peculiar cir- 
cumstances which have kept the resources of the State dor- 
mant, the cost of labor was reduced to lower figures than in 
any other part of the United States. This condition is not 
one of such adversity to the people as might be supposed, in 
consequence of the cheapness of living. The abundance of 
everything necessary for the ordinary support of the people, 
the ease with which grains, fruits, and vegetables may be 
grown in any part of the State, enables the laboring popula- 
tion to live on very moderate wages. The ease with which a 
large laboring force can be put in motion with money, renders 
the field a most inviting one to a capitalist, whatever the 
business he may undertake, or the character of the natural 
resources proposed to be developed. 

The following table shows the prices of farm labor per 
month so recently as 1867, and this may be taken as a stand- 
ard of comparison for all labor : — 

Prices of farm labor per month, from the Agricultural Report for 
January, 1867. 

By the year By the year By the season By the season 

without hoard. with hoard. without hoard. with hoard. 

Massachusetts $38.94 $22.36 $41.61 $27.83 

Connecticut 34.25 21.54 39.66 28.30 

New York 29.57 19.32 34.88 24.26 

New Jersey 32.27 18.98 33.13 23.78 

Pennsylvania 29.91 18.84 34.10 22.87 

Maryland 20.36 12.76 23.83 15.58 

Virginia 14.82 9.36 17.21 12.09 

North Carolina 13.46 8.15 15.18 10.00 

Georgia 15.51 9.67 18.45 12.07 

Louisiana 20.50 12.42 22.25 18.34 

Tennessee 19.00 12.58 22,00 16.61 

Kentucky 20.23 13.65 23.80 17.06 

Ohio 28.46 18.96 32.45 23.15 

Illinois 28.54 18.72 33.09 23.30 

Wisconsin 30.84 19.87 35.65 24.60 

Iowa 28.34 18.87 33.24 23.82 

Kansas 31.03 19.81 36.40 25.46 

California 45.71 30.35 50.00 34.39 


The materials for the above statement were obtained with 
great labor and care by the Agricultural Department in 1866, 
and published at the beginning of 1867. It shows most con- 
clusively the advantages under which enterprises involving 
the employment of labor can be entered upon in North Caro- 
lina, over any other State of the Union. 

The Trade of Wilmington. 

As the chief market town of the coast, and point of export 
for the peculiar products of the State, Wilmington is a place 
of especial interest. The following statement of its trade is 
from the Wilmington Price Current sheet, for January, 1869. 
Its trade in lumber is nearly half to foreign ports, and of 
spirits of turpentine about one-third goes to foreign ports 
direct ; but nearly all other articles come coastwise to north- 
ern ports. 

Statement of the principal articles of Produce exported from the port of 
Wilmington, N. G.,for the year ending 31st December, 1868, as compiled 
from the reports of the Daily Journal, and compared with the exports of 
same articles for years 1866-67. 

sent coastwise. New York. 

Spirits Turp. bbls 36,646 

Crude Turp. " 10,279 

Rosin, bbls 313,430 

Tar " 18,794 

Pitch " 2,425 

Cotton, bales 22,006 

Cotton Yarn, bales 128 

Cotton Sheeting, bales 519 

Peanuts, bushels 80,867 

Rough Rice, bushels 3,409 

Lumber, P. P. feet 2,011,059 

Timber " 16,680 

Shingles 84,983 

Staves, Cypress 993,131 

Staves, Oak 16,050 








































Ports in New 






Articles Ports in 

sent co as i wise. Virginia. 

Spirits Turp. bbls 

Crude Turp. " 301 

Rosin, bbls 14,737 

Tar " 

Pitch " 

Cotton, bales 

Cotton Yarn, bales. 
Cotton Sheet'g " . 
Peanuts, bushels..., 

Rough Rice 

Lumber, P. P. feet. 



Staves, Cypress 

Staves, Oak 

To Charleston 1000 bushels rough rice 
in addition to the detailed list. 

118,589 2,623,059 





















d to Galveston 















100,000 feet of lumber, 
















Articles sent 
to foreihn countries. 

Spirits Turp. bbls 

Crude Turp. " 

Rosin, bbls 

Tar " 

Pitch " 

Cotton, bales 

Cotton Yarn, bales 

Cotton Sheeting, bales. 

Peanuts, bushels 

Rough Rice " 

Lumber, P. P. feet 

Timber " 


Staves, Cypress 

Staves, Oak 




St. John's, 

N. B. 









Rio de 






4,956,209 250,662 


Articles sent 
to foreign countries. 
Spirits Turp. bbls. 
Crude Turp. " 

Rosin, bbls 

Tar " 

Pitch " 

Cotton, bales 

Cotton Yarn, bales 
Cotton Sheet'g " 
Peanuts, bushels 

Rough Rice 

Lumber, P. P. feet 5, 
Timber " 


Staves, Cypress.... 
Staves, Oak 













Coastwise and Foreign. 

Total, Total, Grand 

1S67. 1S66. Total, 186S. 

34,670 7,929 94,918 

4,464 1,150 22,343 

30,218 18,218 463,113 

135 746 41,743 

70 251 5,667 

863 162 31,828 



22 92,705 


5,419,942 12,106,267 19,194,662 18,734,462 22,371,076 

- 47,399 199,199 277,834 

2,191,760 2,241,200 3,982,906 3,827,294 2,997,486 

1,134,395 194,131 293.327 

166,649 50,913 10,050 352,298 76,213 



ital, 1S67. 

Tot. 1S66. 




















Railroads and Internal Communication. 

The railroad system of North Carolina is now very well 
advanced toward completeness, and it is actively being pushed 
in the most necessary localities during the current year, 1869. 
From the north two, or rather three, great roads enter the 
State from Virginia; first, the Seaboard and Roanoke, from 
Norfolk to Weldon; next the Petersburg and Roanoke, con- 
necting Richmond with Wilmington, by way of Weldon and 
Goldsboro, and with Raleigh, by way of Gaston. Next is 
the Richmond and Danville, now extended from the Dan River 
Valley to Greensboro and Salisbury. The whole central part 
of the State is penetrated by these roads and their branches, 
giving an outlet for any kind of freights direct to Norfolk, 
City Point, or Richmond. 

On the seaboard, the first railroad south of Norfolk is the 
new " Atlantic and North Carolina" road, connecting Beaufort 
and Newbern with Goldsboro and Raleigh, where it connects 
with road from Raleigh to Greensboro and Salisbury. This 
is an important opening of the Neuse River district. 

But the chief system of diverging roads from the seaboard 
is at Wilmington, where the Wilmington and Weldon, lead- 
ing to Goldsboro, due north, is the first ; the Wilmington, 
Charlotte, and Rutherford road, leading north of west to Lum- 
berton and Rockingham, and then west to Charlotteville, next ; 
and the Wilmington and Manchester, finally, which leads due 
west to the State line, and then southwest to Manchester and 
Columbia, in South Carolina. The Wilmington, Charlotte, 
and Rutherford road is a new one ; it is now built complete 
to the crossing of the Yadkin (or Great Pedee), near Wades- 
boro, a distance of 120 miles from Wilmington. Forty-three 
miles beyond this point have been completed, west of Char- 
lotte, leaving but 110 miles of unfinished road. The State 
has recently appropriated $4,000,000 for the building of this 
road, and it will be pushed forward as rapidly as possible. 
This State appropriation furnishes ample means to finish it. 
Ultimately, it will connect with the Tennessee system of roads, 
and form one of the great trunk routes between the east and 


Another important new road is the Chatham, which begins 
at the North Carolina Central, near Raleigh, and runs south- 
ward through the Deep River coal district, through Montgo- 
mery County, and by way of Wadesboro to Cheraw, South 
Carolina, where it connects with the Northeastern Railroad, to 
complete what is known as the old metropolitan route. The 
work of construction is going on rapidly. 

The Greensboro and Salem is another new road, extending 
some thirty miles northwest from the former place, into a new 
and rich country. 

The Western Railroad, from Fayetteville, by way of the 
coal fields on Deep River, toward Salisbury, to connect with 
the western extension of the N. C. R. R., is also in progress, 
about 40 miles being already completed. 

The western extension of the N. C. R. R. is making rapid 
progress; it has already reached Morganton, and it will be 
completed to Old Fort, at the eastern foot of Swananoa Gap, 
by the end of August. It is then to go through Swananoa 
Gap to Asheville, and from Asheville, southwestward, through 
Haywood, Jackson, Macon, and Cherokee Counties, to Duck- 
town, Tennessee. A branch of this road will run from Ashe- 
ville down the valley of the French Broad River to Paint 
Rock, on the Tennessee line. Work is now going on near 
Old Fort, at the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge. 

The following is a list of the railroads of the State now 
completed and in operation : — 

1. The Seaboard and Roanoke, 80 miles in length, from 
Norfolk to Weldon, 20 miles within the State, and 60 miles 
in Yirginia. 

2. The Petersburg Railroad, a Yirginia road entering the 
State by two branches, one to Weldon, about ten miles within 
the State, and another to Gaston, of 5 or 6 miles only within 
the State, and connecting each of these points with Richmond, 
through Petersburg. 

3. The Wilmington and Weldon, 162 miles in length from 
Wilmington, in nearly a direct line north to Weldon, 
through Goldsboro. 

4. The Raleigh and Gaston, 85 miles to Gaston, and 97 miles 


to Weldon, connecting at each of these points with the Vir- 
ginia roads above named. 

5. The Atlantic and North Carolina, from Goldsboro to 
Morehead City, 95 miles, the most important part of which 
is from Goldsboro to Newbern, 60 miles, and from Newbern 
to the coast near Beaufort, 35 miles; the whole distance from 
Beaufort or Morehead City to Goldsboro being 95 miles, and 
to Ealeigh 143 miles. 

6. The North Carolina Railway, a curved line, the whole 
length of which from Goldsboro to Charlotte is 223 miles, 
and from Ealeigh to Charlotte 175 miles. Its principal sec- 
tions are from Goldsboro to Ealeigh 48 miles (northwest); 
from Ealeigh to Greensboro 83 miles, northwest for half the 
distance, and west for the remainder ; from Greensboro to 
Salisbury 50 miles southwest, and from Salisbury to Char- 
lotte, 43 miles south-southwest, at which point it connects 
with the Charlotte and South Carolina Eailroad. 

7. The Charlotte and South Carolina, just named, extends 
from Charlotte 109 miles southwest to Columbia, 20 miles of 
which is in North Carolina. 

8. The Western North Carolina, an extension of the North 
Carolina 81 miles from Salisbury to Morganton, with 35 miles 
farther nearly or quite complete to Old Fort, the completed 
length being 115 miles from Salisbury. 

9. The Wilmington and Manchester, from Wilmington west 
to Fair Bluff, 63 miles within the State, and 117 miles far- 
ther to Kingsville, South Carolina. 

10. The Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherford, now com- 
pleted to Wadesboro, 120 miles from Wilmington. The 
western division is also built from Charlotte 43 miles to a 
point beyond Lincolnton. 

11. The Richmond, Danville and Piedmont, from Eichmond 
to Danville, 141 miles in Virginia, and from Danville to. 
Greensboro 48 miles in North Carolina; the whole distance 
from Eichmond to Greensboro being 189 miles, and to Ea- 
leigh 272 miles. 

This last is a convenient line for the transportation of 
various products of the rich country about Dan Eiver, and 
the mining products of the vicinity of Greensboro. Tobacco, 


oak-bark, copper ore, and like products go to Richmond, and 
are shipped by steamer to northern cities. 

Cotton generally centres at Wilmington, a great deal 
coming from South Carolina and Georgia over the Wilming- 
ton and Manchester Eailroad. Some cotton of North Caro- 
lina goes to Norfolk, but the greater share to Wilmington. 
Lumber and naval stores are gathered largely at Newbern, as 
well as at Wilmington, but shorter roads, better water trans- 
portation, and steadier markets, combine to gather much more 
than half the exportable products of the State at Wilmington. 

A number of railroads, in addition to these, have been 
authorized by the legislature, or less definitely projected 
recently, two or three of which diverge from Fayetteville, on 
the Cape Fear. One is proposed about 40 miles nearly due 
south to Lumberton; another more nearly southwest to Man- 
chester, S. C; and another northwest to Greensboro. This 
last is already built up to the coal mines of Deep River. In 
the western part of the State the road from Morganton 
through Swananoa Gap is in progress beyond the Blue Eidge, 
one branch leading from Asheville down the French Broad, 
the direction being northwest; and the other passing west- 
ward through Waynesville to the valley of the Tennessee 
River, and due west along that valley into the State of Ten- 
nessee. A branch of this leaves the Tuckasage Valley, in 
Jackson County, to go southwest through Yalleytown and 
Notteley to Ducktown, in Tennessee, there connecting with 
the Chattanooga Railroad. 

The Rabun Gap Railroad also comes up from the south in 
Macon County, to go westward out of the State in the Nante- 
hala and Tennessee River Valleys. The Chatham Railroad 
has been referred to above; also the Greensboro and Salem. 

Several plank roads are also either built or projected in 
the eastern part of the State, mainly diverging from Fayette- 
ville; one northeast to Goldsboro; another north to Raleigh; 
another west to the Yadkin, in Richmond County; and 
another northwestward to Carthage, Ashboro, and Salem, in 
Forsyth County. 
While all these roads and improvements cannot be expected 


at once to attain completion, th'e fact that they are projected 
is a good indication of the spirit of enterprise now awakened. 

Freights and Sea Transportation. 

North Carolina must, to a considerable extent, rely on sea 
transportation to the best markets, which are undoubtedly in 
the seaboard cities of the North. The question of cost of 
freight is important, therefore, and it is a fair comparison to 
show whether freights are cheaper to those cities by sea from 
Wilmington, than by rail from Cleveland. We have already 
referred to the cost of transporting lumber by these two 
routes, the difference being two dollars per thousand feet in 
favor of Wilmington. 

Prof. Maury has recently calculated, in his first report on 
the " Physical Survey of Virginia," a very valuable table of 
average rates of transportation by sea, canal, and railway, 
which shows the facility with which coastwise freights may 
be delivered in all the northern markets from Wilmington, 
Newbern, or Norfolk ; and because of this facility and cheap- 
ness, even the bulky products of eastern North Carolina com- 
pete successfully with anything of their class wherever pro- 
duced. Lumber and shingles, as well as naval stores and 
cotton, are carried cheaper to New York than they can be 
from any interior spot of production whatever. 

Average Bate of Freight, in mills, per ton, per mile, by different carriers. 

By sea, long voyage . . . 1^ mills per ton, per mile. . 

Coastwise 4^ " " 

River, barges 4 " " 

Erie Canal, including tolls . . 9 T % " " 

Canals generally .... 13 T 7 o " '• 

Railroads 30 (3 cts.) " 

These are Prof. Maury's figures, and we would estimate a 
lower average for coastwise freights, making them not above 
3 mills per ton per mile, or one-tenth the cost of railway 
freights at 3 cents per ton per mile. The sailing distance 
from Wilmington to New York may be estimated at 750 to 
800 miles at the most, and the freights as equal, on an ave- 
rage, to the cost for 150 to 200 miles by rail. 


It is not easy to cite any regular rates of freights in this 
coastwise trade, or in the large foreign trade of the port of 
"Wilmington. By reference to the table of the trade of Wil- 
mington, before given, it will be seen that a great many car- 
goes of lumber go every year to West Indian ports, and that 
naval stores and cotton freight a number of vessels to London, 
Liverpool, and continental ports. All these are known to be 
as cheaply shipped as from any other port, and the easiest and 
safest employment for sailing vessels of the entire coast being 
found in this trade, there are always vessels offering. 

By railroad, also, the shipment of produce to Norfolk is 
easy and cheap. In 1868 the Wilmington and Weldon Road 
took over 12,000 barrels of early fruits and vegetables, mostly 
to Norfolk; and the whole line of seaboard counties, as well 
as those farther inland, traversed by this road, will furnish a 
large amount of such freight for sending northward from Wil- 
mington, Newbern, and Norfolk. 

Fisheries and Fowl Shooting of the Coast. 

The fisheries of the coast of North Carolina make a very 
important element of the productions of the State. In Ruf- 
fin's " Sketches of Lower North Carolina," a very clear de- 
scription of the Sound Fisheries is to be found, which we- 
here transcribe: — 

" The fisheries on the large rivers, by seines drawn to the shores, have- 
long been in operation ; but it has been but recently, compared to the 
others, that fisheries were first tried in the broad waters of the sounds. 
Though it was previously supposed that the great expense of such fisheries 
could not be repaid, and that in so broad a channel but few of the fish 
could be reached from the shore ; yet, on trial, the Sound fisheries were 
found to be the most productive and profitable. Since that time, however, 
so many fisheries have been established that the products and profits of 
each one have, in later years, been greatly diminished. 

"The land and shore at Stevenson's Point, the extremity of Durant's 
Neck (on the north shore of Albemarle Sound in Perquimans Comity), 
was the property of J. T. Granbery and F. Nixon, and the first Sound 
fishery was established there and conducted by them. Albemarle Sound 
is there supposed to be nine or ten miles across, and in the edge of this 
broad space the seine is hauled. I will describe the manner of conducting 
this fishery, which does not differ materially from most others since estab- 
lished on the shore of the Sound. The extremities of the sweeps of the 
different fisheries almost touch each other, and they extend, with but few 


intervals, to the Chowan River. The labors, and other facts of these fishe- 
ries, may well astonish those who were before uninformed as to the mag- 
nitude of the operations. 

"The seines used in the different fisheries vary in length from 2200 to 
2700 yards, and are 18 feet deep, as fished. They are laid out about a 
mile and a quarter from the shore, and, of course, the hauling-ropes, from 
both ends to reach the shore, must be together more than two and a half 
miles long. A seine is carried out by two large boats, each managed by 
twelve able hands (in some cases ten suffice), and is laid out, beginning at 
the middle, straight and nearly parallel with the shore ; the boats from 
each end of the seine then row to the shore, letting the attached hauling- 
ropes run out from the boats. The shore ends of the ropes are then 
attached to large capstans, each turned by six horses. Except two men 
required at each capstan, one to drive the horses, and the other to watch 
and direct the passage of the rope around the shaft, all the other men at- 
tached to the seine are discharged, to rest, eat, or sleep, as they may choose, 
until the ends of the seine reach the shore 

"The fishing labors are carried on without cessation through the twenty- 
four hours, except when suspended because of storms ; therefore the hands, 
like sailors at sea, work and rest, not by day and by night, but by shorter 
'watches.' Besides the fishermen, or boats' crews, there are fifteen other 
men employed on shore, and forty women and boys, to trim, salt, and 
pack the herrings caught. The particular large draughts of herrings, as 
well as the whole number caught by each seine in a season, have greatly 
diminished as the seines have increased in number. The seine at Steven- 
son's Point once brought in and landed 220,000 herrings at one haul. On 
the rare occasions of such enormous draughts of fish, and at other times 
when the cleaning and salting cannot proceed fast enough to save the fish 
if all were landed at once, and also in warm weather, the ends of the seine 
are hauled gradually, and a smaller seine is hauled within the inclosed 
space, so as to land the fish no faster than they are needed, or than is safe. 
In this way one draught of the seine has in some cases been more than 
twenty-four hours in being landed. 

" The first outfit of one of these seines, and the expenses of the first sea- 
son, amount to from $12,000 to $15,000. Afterwards the expenses for a 
season are much less 

" Considering that all these herrings are fish of passage, and enter every 
spring from the ocean, it is astonishing that such multitudes should enter 
through the very narrow and shallow inlets through the sand reef. Be- 
sides the main and direct profit of these fisheries, there is another which is 
not availed of to one-tenth of the extent that might be done. This is the 
use, as manure, of the immense amount of animal matter in the trimming 
or garbage of the herrings, and other salable fish ; and also of other fish, 
for which there is no demand for curing, and which sometimes rot and go 
to waste by hundreds of bushels." 

Mr. Kuffin advises various modes of saving and using this 
fish waste, which is now only used at the nearest localities, 


and generally by burying a fish or a handful of fragments 
under each hill or spot where corn is planted. This is the 
common way all along the coast, in various localities of Long- 
Island Sound and of the New England coast. A better way 
is to prepare a compost with any ordinary earth, and particu- 
larly with vegetable matter, and a share of lime or of shells. 
Euffin suggests the use of shell marl, or of any marl contain- 
ing carbonate of lime. It is clear that many modes of making 
this fish waste available in fertilizing soils might be resorted 
to, and in this way a great addition to the value of the fishe- 
ries would be made. 

The North Carolina herring fishery is a very important 
one, as Mr. Euffin's statement shows. "We have greatly con- 
densed what he says in the report above cited, and we refer 
the more critical reader to that report itself for much valuable 

Duck Shooting on the Sound. 

Mr. Euffin proceeds, in the same report, to give a very 
interesting account of this new branch of industry, as he calls 
it, and we cannot do better than to copy a part of it : — 

"In Princess Anne and Currituck Counties the killing of "wild water- 
fowl is a branch of industry of considerable importance for its amount of 
profit. Its extent is scarcely known by any person out of this region. 
For myself I had never heard of it as a regular business pursued for profit, 
and was much impressed with the novelty, as with the singular features of 
the pursuit Since the closing of the former deep and wide Curri- 
tuck Inlet, the strip of ocean sand beach or reef has been unbroken from 
the northern extremity in Princess Anne, bordering on the Chesapeake 
Bay for some 55 miles to the southern end of Currituck County. The 
narrow waters, or sounds, inclosed between the reef and the mainland, is, 
in Virginia, not usually more than two miles wide. In North Carolina it 
widens into Currituck Sound, and is between five and ten miles wide, 
having within it several inhabited islands. All these sound waters are 
shallow, and, for the much larger extent, less than ten feet deep — a large 
proportion near the shores under six feet deep. Since the complete closing 
of Currituck Inlet in 1828, the water has become fresh, and changes have 
been gradually effected in most of the productions ; one of the most impor- 
tant was in affording new and remarkable attractions to wild fowl of pas- 
sage. Three or more different kinds of fresh-water grasses soon began to 
grow at the bottom of all the shallower waters, and even up to nine feet 

deep These different grasses now cover the whole bottom, within 

the limits of depth named. The seeds of some of these plants mature in 


May, but it is not until autumn that the various kinds of water fowl, pass- 
ing from their far northern summer retreats, are attracted to this place by 
the great abundance of their preferred food. 

" There are ducks of various kinds, of which the canvas-back is the most 
esteemed. There are also wild geese and swans. Altogether they congre- 
gate in numbers exceeding all conception of any person who had not been 
informed. The shooting season continues through the winter. From de- 
scription I cannot imagine any other sport, of field or flood, that can be 
more likely to gratify a hardy sportsman, unless the certain and great suc- 
cess is such as, by its certainty, to take away much of the pleasure of such 
amusements. The returns in game killed and secured, through any cer- 
tain time, to a skilful, patient, and enduring gunner, are as sure as the 
profits of any ordinary labor of agriculture or trade, and far larger for the 
capital employed. 

"Decoy ducks and geese are used to attract the flying flocks of wild 
ones. In most cases the decoys are made of wood, painted to resemble 
the designed originals. In other cases the decoys are living geese or 
ducks of wild kinds tamed or confined ; and these are tied by one foot so 
as to swim at the place where it is designed that the flocks shall settle in 
the water. A small and natural-looking blind or screen made of a few 
bushes, with rushes, dry water grass, etc., is constructed within gunshot 
of the decoys, behind which the gunner places himself, to await the arrival 
of the 'raft' of wild ducks. They are often so numerous as entirely to 
cover acres of the surface of the water, so that the observer from the beach 
would see only ducks, and no water between them." 

The same authority mentions a case in which thirty gun- 
ners were employed by one proprietor, for the entire winter. 
These were paid a definite sum for each fowl shot, and were 
served with ammunition by the proprietor. In one winter 
this proprietor consumed one ton of gunpowder and four tons 
of shot, with 46,000 percussion caps. This business is pur- 
sued in the same manner along a line of coast 150 miles in 

The Climate of North Carolina. 

In some references made at the outset of this paper to the 
climate of this State, it was said that the climate represented, 
in a very remarkable degree, the entire range from almost 
tropical characteristics to the temperate and moderate sum- 
mers of the best part of the Northern States. To show how 
fully this statement is borne out by the facts, we copy here a 
number of records of observation made of temperature and 
the quantity of rain, taken chiefly from Blodget's Climatology 
of the United States. 


A very complete record of thermometric and other obser- 
vations was made at Chapel Hill by Professors Caldwell, 
Phillips, and others, beginning as early as 1820, but complete 
only from 1844. A series of 18 years was also observed at 
Smithville, Fort Johnson, from 1822 to 1845 ; and one of 
5 years at Beaufort, Fort Macon. These two points fix the 
climate of the southeastern coast counties quite definitely, 
and a long series of observations at Norfolk or Fortress Mon- 
roe shows nearly what the change is in the northeastern 
corner of the State. In the west there are few regular obser- 
vations, and we must rely on comparisons, and the indications 
afforded by altitude, the growth of forests, and the practical 
experience of residents. 

Reviewing the State by these interesting tests of the prac- 
tical sort, we find in the southeast many indications of a 
tropical character. The palmetto, generally thought to be- 
long only to South Carolina, creeps along the coast at inter- 
vals as far as Cape Hatteras, showing the softening influences 
of the Grulf Stream. The live oak goes still farther ; it covers 
Cape Hatteras, and is found in several localities about Nor- 
folk. Figs and pomegranates here are large trees, and bear 
fruit largely in the open air in all the counties south of Hat- 
teras; winter is lightly felt there; and in the swamps and on 
the banks vegetation is green throughout the year. Great 
numbers of cattle run and breed almost or quite wild there, 
some near the Virginia border being annually herded and 
branded, but never otherwise seen by their assumed owners. 
A breed of ponies on the banks also ranges uncared for during 
the winter months, subsisting on the grass of the savannas. 
Snow is rarely seen at Wilmington, and frost is equally rare. 
No ice forms on the waters, and potatoes, cabbages, lettuce, 
radishes, and many garden vegetables, are planted in Decem- 
ber, to be used in February, March, and April. 

From Newbern northward the coast is cooler in winter, 
but no part of it is so cold as at Norfolk ; yet the winter at 
Norfolk permits the live oak and the fig to grow, and gives 
only occasional snows or frost. 

In the interior, or approaching it from the coast, the sandy 
pine lands soon develop cooler winters, until, at Raleigh, a 


new standard is established. Here garden vegetables, such 
as we have named, still grow in most winters unprotected ; 
but there are occasional frosts and snows. Cabbage, lettuce, 
spinach, radishes, etc. grow best in winter. The fig has 
always one crop, and sometimes two ; the peach blossoms the 
1st of March, and ripens in June. Strawberries ripen early 
in May ; peas are eatable early in May ; potatoes at the same 
time; and the whole growth is a week earlier than Norfolk, 
two weeks earlier than Maryland, and three weeks earlier 
than southern New Jersey. 

At Greensboro and Salisbury one gradation later is found, 
the spring being about the same as at Norfolk, perhaps a 
little later. The average surface is about a thousand feet 
above the sea level, and the winters have frosts and snows of 
such severity as to preclude any growth of unprotected vege- 

In the mountain valleys and slopes, where the average 
elevation above the sea is from 1800 to 3500 feet, the standard 
of climate is nearly that of Baltimore, Philadelphia, and 
Harrisburg. Snow will sometimes remain for some days on 
the ground, and firm ice forms at intervals in the rivers. 
The winter begins with November, yet there is less con- 
tinuous severity of winter weather, and cattle often need little 
winter feeding, if they have woodlands and open mountain 
sides to range over. 

The period exempt from night frosts is about from April 
25th to October 10th, on the average; the planting season 
for corn and like crops being April 15th to 20th. In some 
of the more elevated valleys frosts are later in spring and 
earlier in autumn, but there are no valleys in which corn will 
not grow well, and the variety of products is so great as to 
suggest an unusual mingling of climates. Sweet potatoes are, 
as we have mentioned in a previous part of this paper, a 
regular product of more than half the mountain counties. 
Hon. T. L. Clingman says : — 

" Horses and horned cattle are usually driven out into the mountains 
about the 1st of April, and are brought back in November. Within six 
weeks after they have thus been 'put in the range,' they become exceed- 
ingly fat and sleek. There are, however, on the tops and along the sides 


of the higher mountains, evergreen, or winter grasses, on which horses 
and horned cattle live well through the entire winter. Such animals are 
often foaled and reared there until fit for market, without ever seeing a 
cultivated plantation." .... " All kinds of live stock can be raised (in 
these mountain counties) with facility. Sheep, in flocks of fifty or sixty, 
browse all the winter in good condition. I never saw larger sheep any- 
where than some I observed in the Hamburg Valley of Jackson County, 
the owner of which told me that he had not, for twelve years past, fed his 
sheep beyond giving them salt to prevent their straying away." 

The summer of this mountain region is especially delight- 
ful, the air being pure, elastic, and free from the excessive 
heat and excessive saturation which are often found along 
the Atlantic coast, even as far north as New York. It is 
healthy and exhilarating, without being damp and chilly at 
frequent intervals, as is the case on elevated districts of New 
York and New England. It would be particularly desirable 
as a summer residence for invalids from pulmonary diseases. 
The winter as well as the summer climate at Asheville is 
claimed, by careful observers, to be as dry as that of Minne- 
sota, and all the salubrity so justly claimed for this remote 
State may be realized to the resident of any seaboard State 
by taking up his residence in this upland valley of North 

The following is a summary of thermometrical observa- 
tions at several places in and near North Carolina, beginning 
at Kichmond and Norfolk, at which last-named point the long 
series of years observed fixes the averages with great exact- 
ness. Most of the observations are from the authority above 
quoted; others from recent reports of the Agricultural De- 
partment : — 

Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Tear. Period. 

Richmond, Va 55°.7 75°.4 56°.3 37°.2 56°.2 4 yrs. obs'ed. 

Norfolk (Fortress Monroe) 56.9 76.6 61.7 40.4 59.3 30 

Gaston, 1S T . C 55.6 76.2 57.6 39.7 57 3 3 " 

Thornbury, Northampton Co.. 57.4 77.0 59.1 41.5 5S.8 2 " 

Scuppernong (Lake Phelps)... 5S.6 74 7 60.0 43.3 59.1 2 " 

Murfreesborough, Hertford Co. 56.9 76 5 5S.4 42.3 5S.5 3 " 

Chapel Hill University 59.3 76.3 60.3 42.S 59.7 14 " 

Goldsboro 57.1 78.0 60.9 44 60.0 2 " 

Beaufort, Fort Macon 59.5 7S.5 65.2 45.7 62.2 5 " 

Smithville, Fort Johnson 64.5 80.2 67.4 50.6 65.7 18 " 

All Saints, near Georget'n, S. C. 61 S 78.4 65.0 48.2 63.3 5 " 

Charleston, Fort Moultrie 65.8 80.6 68.0 51.7 66.6 2S " 

Camden, S. C 63.0 78.4 62 9 46.6 62.7 5 " 

Charlotte, N. C 57.8 76.3 58.9 42.8 5S.9 2 " 

Asheville, N. C 52.0 71.5 56.0 39.0 54.6 2 (parts of.) 

Knoxville, Tenn 55.8 70.8 56.7 39.3 55.7 1 yr. obser'd 

Knoxville (another series) 58.2 73.0 57.4 3S.5 56.8 2 yrs. nearly 


The last two of the stations entered here are too imperfect 
to be satisfactory, but they serve the purpose of partial com- 
parison. It appears from these results that the climate of 
Eichmond is not far from that of the valleys at Asheville and 
Knoxville ; that of Asheville being cooler in summer, but 
warmer in winter. Smithville and Charleston are very much 
alike, both showing a marked contrast with places so far in 
the interior as Chapel Hill and Charlotte. 

The isothermal charts of Blodget's Climatology show this 
contrast of the interior with the coast in a striking manner; 
the lines representing averages for each season and the year, 
curving sharply down or southward along the mountain pla- 
teau, and this more particularly in summer than at any other 

The quantity of rain falling is not excessive in any part of 
the State. At Gaston and Chapel Hill it is 42 inches in the 
year, and in the more elevated country westward somewhat 
less, or about 40 inches on the average. In the lower part of 
the State, toward the coast, it is more, or about 45 inches. 
There is less just at the sea line than there is 50 to 75 miles 
inland. The few, and not entirely trustworthy observations 
we have, are the following : — ■ 

Average Quantities of Rain. 

Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Year. Period. 

Norfolk, Va 9.77 inches 15 08 10.16 10.17 45.13 19 years. 

Gaston, N. C 11,27 12.09 9.07 10.23 42 66 3 " 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 10.03 10.2S 10.69 10.10 41.11 4 " 

Waccamaw, S. C. . . 7.33 13.45 9.09 1102 40.90 5 " 

Charleston, S. C... 9.89 17.45 10 06 7.52 44 92 12 " 

Camden, S. C 11.19 17.57 8.05 10.64 ■ 47.44 4 " 

Knoxville, Tenn.. 9.62 13.51 6.77 10.42 40.32 2K " 

There are no complete records for points in the interior, 
and west of North Carolina ; but the partial observations 
made at a few points confirm the distribution before men- 
tioned, and as shown in the shaded charts of Blodget's Cli- 
matology. There is more rain in the summer months in 
consequence of the greater quantity falling at one time, not 
because of the greater number of rains. Often three, four, or 
even six inches of water will fall in a single shower of 

In conclusion, too much cannot be said in favor of the 


general climate of North Carolina. In the east and south it 
is almost tropical, without the dangers of a tropical climate, 
and with a soft, delightful winter. In the central part of the 
State it is elastic and generally dry, precisely like the better 
parts of Pennsylvania in this respect, except in being warmer, 
and having an open winter, with only occasional frost or 
snow. In the west it is peculiarly fine, elastic, and dry ; cool, 
without so much of clouds and rain as in the elevated dis- 
tricts of the Northern States ; and in the interior valleys, as 
at Asheville, nothing can be more uniformly delightful, 
winter or summer. 

In a valuable article on the climate of North Carolina, by 
David Christy (published by the Nantehala Mining Company), 
a more complete statement of the advantages of the mountain 
climate of these counties is given than we have room for here. 
Its freedom from damp and mildew, its purity of air and 
elasticity peculiarly fit it for grapes and all the finer fruits. 
Not like the mountains of the Northern States, or of Europe, 
always covered with clouds and storms, these upland counties 
have the purity of mountain air, with the almost constant 
clear sky of the plains of other countries of the same latitudes. 

Some very beautiful spectacles of local cloud formation 
occur on the higher mountain peaks, all the peculiarities of 
such scenes as observed in Europe being here much more 
distinct and conspicuous ; the clouds forming in rounded 
masses, often with lightning and heavy rain, instead of misty 
rain and diffused fog, as in colder latitudes. A vivid descrip- 
tion of these scenes is given by Mr. Christy, in the paper 
above quoted. 

Proportion of Improved and Unimproved Lands. 

North Carolina is one of the largest States; it is larger 
than New York or Pennsylvania ; the first by 3000 square 
miles, and the second by 4000 square miles. It is almost 
exactly as large as Alabama and Iowa, and is exceeded only 
by Georgia and Florida, of the older States of the South, but 
not by Virginia, since the division of that State. It em- 
braces 50,704 square miles of surface; and in 1860 reported 


23,762,969 acres in farms, of which but 6,517,284 were im» 
proved, leaving 17,245,685 acres unimproved. In Pennsyl- 
vania and New York, by the same census, these proportions 
were nearly reversed. 

Acres improved. Acres unimproved. 

North Carolina . . . 6,517,284 17,245,685 

New York .... 14,358,403 6,616,555 

Pennsylvania .... 10,463,296 6,548,844 

By calculation, the number of square miles given above 
show that 8,687,591 acres of surface reckoned as within the 
State, must be water or mountain, not included in the return of 
farms, nor of tracts owned by the State ; or, at least, not being 
surveyed, and defined as so owned. Large tracts of the 
swamp lands belong to the Literature Fund, a trust created 
•for the uses of various institutions of instruction. Nearly 
2,000,000 of acres in the coast counties yet belong to the 
State, and large tracts in the mountain counties, amounting, 
in the aggregate, to much more. But the greater proportion 
of the unimproved lands are in tracts of various sizes owned 
by individuals. 

The large proportion of unimproved lands is a most impor- 
tant point in considering their available value to a purchaser, 
or the extent to which his application of capital and labor can 
advance their value above their cost. To buy lands already 
as high in price as they can be bought after much money and 
labor has been expended on them, is quite a different thing 
from buying where, by opening and rendering them accessi- 
ble, their value can be largely increased above such first 

We give a tabular statement, therefore, of the proportion 
of improved and unimproved land in the several natural divi- 
sions of the State : first, the coast counties and swamp lands ; 
second, the pitch-pine region of sandy lands; and next, the 
great central area, with the mountain districts in conclusion. 




Acres improved. 

Acres unimproved 

Currituck .... 36,561 


Camden . 












Chowan . 



Hertford . 












Beaufort . 






Pitt . 









Carteret . 









New Hanover 














Thus the area unimproved in the coast counties alone is 
nearly 4,000,000 of acres, and nearly three and a half times 
the amount improved. The counties on the Albemarle 
Sound make the best return, and many tracts in them are 
richly productive since they were drained and brought under 
skilful cultivation. But all the coast and swamp lands south 
of Albemarle show a large excess of unoccupied lands, 
amounting in New Hanover, Bladen, Columbus, and Bruns- 
wick, to nearly ten times the area of lands improved. In 
these four counties there are 1,481,441 acres unimproved, to 
165.070 acres improved. 

In the next district, the pine lands, the following are the 
proportions : — 



Acres improved. 

Acres unimproved 

Northampton .... 127,775 























Johnston . 









Sampson . 














The proportion here is a little more than two-thirds unim- 
proved, though we have some uplands in the counties named, 
it being impossible to separate the parts of counties. Parts 
of Wake, Halifax, Northampton, and two or three other 
counties, are not of the sandy pine land region ; and, again, a 
good share of some of the counties of the first table were pine 

The main part of the State west of these pine lands cannot 
be separately classified, though some parts are really moun- 
tainous. Leaving one tier of counties east of the Blue Eidge 
to be classed with the mountain counties beyond it, we bring 
the rest into an aggregate : — 



Warren . 



Person . 

Orange . 

Caswell . 







Guilford . 


Stokes . 



Stanley . 

Anson . 



Rowan . 


Yadkin . 

Iredell . 


Lincoln . 

Gaston . 


icres improved. 

Acres unimproved 





























































Caswell, Person, Alamance, and Guilford show the largest 
proportions of improved, the first having two-thirds im- 
proved, and the others about half. The average is one-third 
improved. Moore, Eichmond, Montgomery, and Union, in 
the southern part of the State, show less than one-fifth of the 
surface improved. 

In the remaining counties east of the mountains the propor- 
tion improved is much less than in this central belt : — 




Wilkes . 


Caldwell . 






Acres improved. 

Acres unimproved 





















But little more than one-fifth of the surface is improved, 
but a share is so rough and mountainous as to preclude culti- 
vation. It is valuable for timber and mining, however. 

The counties west of the Blue Eidge have been increased 
in number by division since 1860, but we can only cite them 
as then divided : — 



Yancey . 

Madison . 




Jackson . 



Acres improved. 

Acres unimproved 























The counties of Mitchell, Transylvania, and Clay have 
been formed by division of the above — Mitchell between 
Watauga and Yancey, and the others on the southern border, 
from Jackson and Cherokee. In these mountain counties 
one-sixth only of the surface was improved in 1860. 

Review of the Agricultural Resources of the State. 

Having gone over a number of the leading classes of mate- 
rial resources of the State in distinct descriptions, we may 
add something here of a general character, to refresh the 
attention of those who may read what we have written, and 
to enable us to add a review of the agriculture of the State 


in 1867 as prepared by the Agricultural Department from the 
letters and correspondents in North Carolina. 

In the agriculture, lumber-producing, mining, manufactur- 
ing, and almost every other pursuit, the point that arrests 
attention first is the readiness with which great natural ad- 
vantages can be made available where capital and energy are 
applied. The whole surface is wonderfully rich in capacity 
for diversified agriculture — from the surpassingly fertile 
drained lands of the coast counties, to the mountain valleys 
of the west, there is nothing to equal the range of produc- 
tion. Cotton and rice ; winter-grown vegetables ; market 
garden produce ; figs, grapes, and the most delicate orchard 
fruits of the north ; grains of every kind, from rice to buck- 
wheat ; cattle and sheep raising in natural ranges almost 
oblivious of winter — all these are offered in a locality only 
twenty -four hours by rail and thirty-six by water from New 
York or Philadelphia. And these lands, with the cost of the 
labor to work them, represent but half the capital required 
for lands in Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, or even Kentucky. 

Transportation, as we have shown, represents only about 
three-fourths of the cost of transportation from other pro- 
ducing districts equally distant, and on the seaboard, railroad 
monopoly can never encumber it with excessive prices. 
The twenty ports of North Carolina are always open to the 
fleet of cheap carrying vessels seeking business in the coast- 
ing trade, and no combination has ever been thought of by 
which the natural freedom of sea navigation could be bound 
up in oppressive exactions. 

The following agricultural review of the State in 1867 is 
valuable as an independent and impartial statement derived 
from original sources within the State ; but it must be borne 
in mind that it is simply -a reflex of the feelings and views 
of the correspondents of the Department for that year. Then 
cotton was low in price, and those who had grown it antici- 
pating good prices were severely disappointed. Now it is 
worth one-half more than then, and what is said of cotton 
growing is therefore to be taken with these allowances. And 
a like caution is to be observed in regard to other remarks on 
crops and production. 


Agricultural Review of North Carolina in 1867. 

The Department of Agriculture in 1867 issued a circular 
of inquiries to as many persons as could readily be reached, 
soliciting answers to the following inquiries : — 

1 . What is the average percentage of increase (or decrease if cases of decrease 
exist) in the price of farm lands in your county since 1860? 

2. What is the average value of wild or unimproved tracts of land ; and what 
is the character, quality, and capabilities of such land ? 

3. What marked or peculiar resources have you in soil, timber, or minerals ; 
and what is the state of their development, or inducement for attempted devel- 
opment ? 

4. What crops, if any, are made a specialty in your county; and what facts 
illustrating their culture, quantity, and the profit derived? 

5. What kinds of wheat are cultivated, and which of them are preferred ; and 
why ? What is the time for drilling and sowing ? for harvesting ? and what is 
the amount and mode of culture ? What proportion is drilled? 

6. What grasses are natural to your pastures? How many months can farm 
animals feed exclusively in pastures? What would be a fair estimate, per head, 
of the cost of a season's pasturage of an average herd of cattle ? 

7. What are the capabilities of your county for fruit? What fruits are best 
adapted to your soil and climate ? Give some facts concerning yield and profit. 

A condensed summary of all the answers received from 
each State was published in the Monthly Agricultural Reports 
for the early months of 1868, and that for North Carolina in 
the February number of those reports. The following is 
this summary : — 

1. Reports from forty-one counties represent a very general decrease in 
values of real estate (from 1860). Madison and McDowell Counties report no 
decrease from prices of 1860, while the latter shows an actual increase on those 
of 1866. Onslow reports no decrease on well improved farms, but all others 
estimate a decline varying from five to seventy-five per cent., and even more, 
especially at forced sales. As a general rule, small and improved farms have 
decreased less than large and neglected ones. The general average may be fairly 
rated at fifty per cent. The causes are variously stated, as war, change in sys- 
tem of labor, scarcity of money, unsettled state of public affairs, and the unrest 
of doubts in regard to the future. 

2. Wild or unimproved lands are reported in three general classes : first, 
lands exhausted, abandoned, and grown up to bushes; second, virgin uplands, 
generally well timbered ; and third, low or swamp lands, pocosin, often well tim- 
bered. The first, once fertile, can be restored in time, and by good management ; 
the second requires only clearing and tillage ; and the third needs drainage in 
addition. The second and third can be had at prices varying from fifty cents to 
ten dollars per acre ; the first at even lower rates. Pitch and turpentine lands 
abound in Duplin, Lincoln, Cabarrus, Hertford, Sampson, Onslow, and Moore 
Counties ; and can be had at from two dollars to"^ five dollars, according to 
quality and facilities for working and marketing. 

" Pocosin," or swamp lands are reported in quantities in Duplin, Onslow, 


and a few other counties ; in the latter one body of " white oak pocosin" of sixty 
thousand acres, extending into several adjacent counties, and other tracts nearly 
as large, requiring combined capital to drain. Another writer says of these 
that "the prices are from two dollars to three dollars per acre, and clearing and 
draining will cost as much more. They are among the most fertile lands when 
brought into cultivation." The principal portion of these lands belongs to the 
Literary Board of North Carolina. Wilkes County reports ridge or rolling lands 
with branch (or river) bottoms : 100 acre farms, one-fourth cleared, with cabin, 
running water, plenty of wood, at two dollars per acre ; mountain lands well 
wooded, generally fertile, and water power too abundant to be appreciated, at 
one dollar per acre. Camden County (N. E. extremity of State), virgin forest 
lands five dollars, and virgin swamp one dollar per acre ; Jackson County moun- 
tain lauds, rich and loose in quality, much of it stony, average fifty cents per 
acre ; Caldwell County, all timbered, and water power abundant, level lands one 
dollar, and mountain fifty cents per acre ; Bertie County (head of Albemarle 
Sound) is three-fourths timbered, uplands formerly held at five dollars, bottom 
lands higher in price. 

Lands generally of good quality and capable of high improvement exist in 
Duplin, Bertie, Halifax, Hertford, Onslow, Wilkes, Wilson, Macon, and Davie 
Counties, all offered low ; the greater part of these are suitable for cereals and 
vegetables, fruits of various kinds, some for cotton and tobacco, and a small 
part for rice. 

3. Among the resources that could easily be made available and profitable in 
prosperous times, and with a few facilities in marketing, are yellow and pitch 
pine in abundance, formerly profitable for turpentine and lumber, in Duplin, 
Onslow, Wake, and other counties ; timber of various kinds suitable for building, 
furniture, &c., in Bertie, Anson, Hertford, Onslow, Sampson, Iredell, Madison, 
Henderson, Montgomery, Moore, Stokes, and Burke Counties ; and agricultural 
resources in marketable products, with a good system of farming, in all except, 
perhaps, Northampton and Cumberland. Besides these, iron is manufactured in 
Chatham, Lincoln, and Gaston Countie?, and found in Randolph, Mecklenburg, 
Alleghany, Madison, Moore, Davie, and Guilford Counties. Gold, silver, and 
copper are found in Davidson ; gold in Stanley, Randolph, Cabarrus (the centre 
of the gold region), Lincoln, Anson, Mecklenburg, (which is rich also in zinc, 
sulphur, copperas, and blue vitriol,) Iredell, Rowan, Franklin, Gaston, Caldwell, 
Moore, McDowell, Rutherford, Guilford, and Burke ; copper in Iredell, Rowan, 
Alleghany, Jackson and Guilford; bituminous coal in Chatham and Moore, and 
plumbago in Wake. In most of the counties, however, railroad or other facili- 
ties for marketing will be required to make these resources profitable, and at 
present, even in the best locations, capital, skill, and enterprise are needed. 

4. Cotton has heretofore been a principal, and in many cases the only sale 
crop in Duplin, Bertie, Northampton, Halifax, Anson, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, 
Franklin, Wilson, and Wake Counties; but the disturbances in labor and fall in 
price have rendered it precarious, if not utterly unprofitable.* Wheat is a principal 
and generally profitable crop in Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Randolph, Camden, Polk, 
Gaston, Caldwell, Moore, Guilford, and Burke ; and corn in Uuplin, Randolph, 

* This was written in 1S67, when cotton was low ; now good prices are received, and the 
cotton crop is highly profitable. It must he observed that this summary is made up from 
letters of planters written at that time. 


Halifax, Onslow, Sampson, Camden, Polk, Gaston, Henderson, Caldwell, Moore, 
McDowell, Wake, Rutherford, Guilford, and Burke. Tobacco is made a specialty in 
Franklin, Davie, and Person, and ground peas (or nuts) in Onslow. In nearly all 
the counties farming is reported at a low state in management and profits. Corn 
is the staple for bread in many counties. Halifax reports the yield on best 
lands — cotton four hundred to five hundred pounds lint ; corn on uplands twenty 
to thirty, and on lowlands thirty to fifty bushels ; but on common lands through- 
out the State the average is one hundred to three hundred pounds lint ; twelve 
to twenty bushels of corn, five to ten bushels of wheat. Onslow reports ground 
nuts fifty to ninety bushels per acre, at $2 25 to $2.50 per bushel ; and sweet 
potatoes fifty to sixty bushels, at $4 to $10 per barrel. Sampson reports that 
before the war, at its county fairs, prizes were awarded for one hundred bushels 
of corn and thirty bushels of wheat to the acre. 

5. Drilling in grain crops is not practised in the State, except a few experi- 
ments in two counties ; and the general amount of wheat is sowed at the rate 
of one bushel to the acre, and lightly ploughed or harrowed in. The seed wheats 
preferred are the earliest and hardiest procurable, and are as follows : Purple 
straw (called a white wheat, while others speak of "rare ripe" as a synonym, 
and call it a red wheat, thus causing doubt and confusion) is preferred in Duplin, 
Davidson, Randolph, Chatham, Halifax, Franklin, and Montgomery ; Mediter- 
ranean in Randolph and Stokes ; white Baltimore (pronounced very good, but 
rather uncertain) in Stanley, Rowan, and Rutherford ; blue stem in Wilkes, 
Franklin, Polk, Alleghany, and Burke ; Walker in Madison, Alleghany, Jackson, 
and Macon ; Johnson white in Halifax; Orleans white in Anson; early white 
and " Ruffin" in Camden; red May in Mecklenburg; and Clingman in Hender- 
son. It is noteworthy that the early Tappahannock, distributed by this de- 
partment, is superseding all or nearly all these varieties as fast as it becomes 
known, and is now preferred in Lincoln, Anson, Mecklenburg, Wilkes, Polk, 
Caldwell, Davie, Person, Watauga, and Burke, for its early ripening, freedom 
from disease, and insects, good yield, and hardiness. Sowing is clone from early 
in September to January, but generally in October and November. Harvesting 
is generally in June, sometimes extending into July. In one wheat-growing 
county the cradle is spoken of as lately superseding the reap hook (sickle). 

6. Crab, wire, and sedge-grasses are the most common natives. Herds, 
meadows, blue, timothy, and water grasses, and the clovers are more or less 
common in most counties. Lespedeza (wild clover) in Lincoln County is rooting 
out the segge and crab-grass. But few regular pastures or meadows are made. 
Most stock is turned into forest and mountain ranges in the spring, and remain 
there until after harvest, when it is put into the fields. On some of those ranges 
cattle grow fat. Regular pasturing costs from one dollar to two dollars per 
month ; in ranges, the expense of occasional attendance and salt is from one 
dollar to four dollars the season, which lasts from six to eight months, and win- 
ter foddering from three to four and a half months. Little or no stock is raised 
in Bertie, Northampton, Anson, and Stokes Counties. 

7. The long seasons mature northern winter apples too early for good keep- 
ing, but the fine Virginia and native winter varieties keep well. Only small 
quantities of fruits are raised in Northampton, Anson, Camden, Gaston, Moore, 
and Cumberland ; but if there was a demand, nearly all would be found well 
adapted to fruit raising. The other counties are well suited to this culture, and 


fruits of all kinds (except tropical) are easily cultivated and produce abundantly. 
In some counties the apple, in others the pear, and in yet others the peach are 
never failing. In many the native grapes, especially the Scuppernong, produce 
abundantly, and are free from mildew and rot. In Wilson the Scuppernong 
yields from 20 to 25 barrels of juice per acre. In Chatham apples are profita- 
ble. In Polk one hundred apple-trees yield one hundred gallons of brandy. In 
Alleghany apple-trees average ten bushels each, at a profit of twenty cents per 
bushel. In Davie an acre of apple orchard is worth from §100 to §150 annually. 
In Onslow fruit raising is profitable and orchards on the increase. Wilkes is 
claimed to be the best county in the State for good apples and cherries. In 
Guilford orchards of good apples, peaches, and cherries are profitable, and in 
several others fruit raising could be, if facilities for marketing were afforded and 
proper attention given to the business. In Stanley pear blight is prevented by 
a free application of putrid urine to the roots at the beginning of winter, and 
stone fruit trees protected from the borer by applying the same remedy before 
and while the insect is at work. 

Availability of the Coal of Deep River. 

In our previous statements less than justice has been done 
to the value of the coal of Deep Eiver, and particularly to its 
availability, both as regards facility of mining, and as regards 
the easy means of getting it to tide-water. This coal has a 
wide range of uses, being the best and most compact of bitu- 
minous coals. All such coals are in demand all along the 
seaboard, since none of this class is found in the great anthra- 
cite region of Pennsylvania, and the bituminous coals of 
Western Pennsylvania are practically almost as remote as the 
Nova Scotia coal. If it can be mined freely on the Deep 
Eiver, therefore, and can be carried at a low cost to the ship- 
ping point at Wilmington, there is every encouragement to 
develop it. 

On this point the following letter is so pertinent and ex- 
plicit, that, although written some years since, we confidently 
rely on its conclusions, and commend them to the attraction of 
far-seeing business men and capitalists : — 

Extracts from a Letter of Wm. McClane, Engineer, on the Goal 
of Deep River Basin. 

To Charles Illius, Esq. : — 

Dear Sir : You ask me for my impartial opinion as to the capabilities of 
your coal-mines on Deep River, N. C, to supply the Atlantic cities with a supe- 
rior and cheap gas coal, sufficient for all their consumption, and also for the 


supply of the steamers now dependent on the depots at Kingston, Jamaica, for 
their necessary fuel : and you further ask me for details as to its cost at tide 
water I must commence by stating that accident, and then curi- 
osity, led me to examine your coal-fields before I was acquainted with you. As 
you are aware, I have had a long practical experience, on a large scale, in the 
coal-fields of Pennsylvania : a contract for engineering carried me to Washing- 
ton, D. C. Subsequently I was called to Raleigh, N. C. There I became 
acquainted with Professors Johnson and Emmons, State Geologists, and by them 
my curiosity was awakened to traverse the coal-fields on Deep River, at that 
time undefined and but little known. I was confirmed in my opinion by 
Messrs. Johnson and Emmons, of a large deposit of the richest gas and steam 
coal on the river intersecting these coal-fields ; which, by the aid of mere flat- 
boats, could be placed at tide-water at a nominal cost, and sufficient for all the 
wants of the Atlantic cities 

As the best coal is always found in the basin of the coal-field, or at the 
greatest distance from the surface, and surmising from calculation that the, 
depth of the first coal seam of importance would be found at about 350 feet, I 
commenced boring, about six months ago, on your estate, called Egypt, and at 
361 feet I have penetrated a five-foot vein of bituminous coal unincumbered 
with slate, easily mined, and superior to any in Great Britain, and I am corrobo- 
rated by Prof. Emmons in this opinion, that at about 40 feet below this vein 
lies another, fully 10 feet thick. Thus, Prof. Emmons gives the quantity of coal 
to the acre to be 29,400 tons, and as your properties lie in this basin, of which 
Egypt alone contains 3000 acres, underlaid with this coal, valued at tide-water 
at five dollars per ton, the intrinsic value of your property is easily estimated. 
Professors Johnson and Jackson, who have several times explored the whole 
region, certify to the quantity and quality of this coal for gas, steam, and house 

. The openings (of the mines) will not exceed one thousand feet from 
your wharves on the river ; and I estimate the cost of pinking a shaft at Egypt, 
with the necessary engines, capable of supplying any required quantity of coal, 
not exceeding one ton per minute, at $35,000 to $40,000. The motive power 
required to carry this coal to tide-water at Wilmington or Smithville is very 
trifling. A proper steam tug, 80 feet long and 100 horse-power, will take six 
flat boats, of 120 tons each, four miles an hour. The distance to Wilmington 
is 160 miles, and allowing one week for each trip of 720 tons, we shall get a 
supply of about 35,000 tons to tide-water for an outlay in motive power, of 
about $18,000, or about fifty cents per ton. As there is no railroad required, 
and the moving is done entirely by water navigation, the quantity will only be 
limited by the number of steam tugs and flatboats employed. Compare this 
with the millions necessarily expended before coal could be brought to tide- 
water from Pennsylvania and Maryland, and which absorbs almost all the value 
of the coal at market. The further expense of taking these 720 tons per week 
is the wages of the men, and their keep during this time, about $88 in all, 
or 1 3 cents per ton. To this add 25 cents per ton toll, and five cents handling 
into vessel, making 43 cents per ton at Wilmington. 

The cost of running a ton of coal can be contracted for, deliverable into 
boats, at 60 cents per ton ; to which add 43 cents, as above, for cost of trans- 
portation, and the whole actual cost of a ton of coal on board of a ship at 


Wilmington, or Smithville, will amount, say, to §1.03. Of course there will be 

plenty of back freight offering, sufficient at least to pay for contingencies ; but 

putting this aside, and estimating the cost at two dollars per ton on board at 

Wilmington, it will still be cheap enough to supply our want of coal at a price 

to defy competition from any quarter. 

Your best depot will be at Smithville, situated at the outlet of Cape Fear 
River, directly on the ocean, but protected by Smith's Island, forming a secure 
harbor. Vessels drawing 18 feet of water can enter at all times, and this port 
lying directly in the track of the steamers plying to the South, can enable them 
to complete their supplies of coal at a great saving of price, and in a port of 
the United States, instead of at Kingston, Jamaica, as at present. 

Your coal depot will thus be, on an average, only a couple of days' sail from 
Charleston, Savannah, Havana and Kingston, Jamaica, all of which places are 
now dependent for their supplies of coal on Great Britain, three thousand miles 
distant. It will be also of easy access to Baltimore, Philadelphia, Newark, and 

Besides coal we have an abundance of the best ingredients for making either 
the finest castings, or iron suited for car-wheels ; for, having our refuse coal, 
iron ores and flux altogether, pig iron can be made equally cheap, say SI 2 or 
$14 per ton. For this there is a ready market, as North Carolina has been 
dependent on Pennsylvania for all her pig metal, at a cost of $40 to $60 per ton, 

including transportation, and according to quality 

Very faithfully and truly, yours, 


Chief Engineer. 

Sentiments of the People. 

There has, been much misapprehension at the North as to 
the sentiments of the people of North Carolina toward citizens 
from other States who come to establish themselves in business 
among them. Whatever may at any time have been the case 
in other parts of the South, in North Carolina there has never 
been any great degree of bitterness resulting from the convul- 
sions of the past few years. The great majority originally Union 
men, and adhering to the last practicable moment to the 
Union cause, the people of this State have accepted the re- 
sults of the war in good faith, and have endeavored to adapt 
themselves to the changed condition of labor as promptly as 
was possible. It is their wish to forget the differences for 
which they were not originally responsible, and to enter on 
a new career of business activity, in which not only will the 
losses of that time be restored, but a wider and more endur- 
ing basis will be laid for their further prosperity in the future. 


It Las sometimes been remarked, that the earlier undertak- 
ings of Northern men in mining and other enterprises in the 
South were not kindly received, and that losses resulted 
which need not have occurred had the people been entirely 
friendly. No doubt, there is some ground for this impression 
as to some portions of the South, though we believe very 
little in North Carolina. In 1865, it was too early to expect 
entire quiet, and a cordial acceptance of results so painful to 
many in the South, and it was not wise to assume that for 
which no reasonable ground existed. But the conditions in 
1869 are greatly changed. The people of both North and 
South have learned to discriminate, and to separate the irre- 
sponsible persons among each who are always foremost in 
creating differences. Earnest business men, and responsible 
citizens of the North, will be welcomed in North Carolina 
with peculiar cordiality, and will be aided in every proper 
enterprise by the best wishes and most active exertions of all 
with whom they come in contact. 

For this assurance there are ample evidences and abundant 
instances within our personal knowledge. The day of mere 
adventurers has gone by, and whatever was done immediately 
after the war, there are now none of that objectionable class 
travelling or going there. Skilful mechanics seeking em- 
ployment are not adventurers, nor are plain people who wish, 
to apply their energies to new fields even without capital. 
The class who wander about to prey upon and deceive any 
part of the Southern people, and particularly those who went 
there to foist themselves into position by pretended special 
friendship for the newly-emancipated colored men, very 
naturally encountered suspicion and hostility. Still worse, 
they, in an equally natural manner, drew down on many de- 
serving men from the North the odium which was due them- 
selves only. It is true, that there should have been more 
discrimination, but it would have been surprising if there 
bad been an absolutely correct course under circumstances 
so well calculated to confound meritorious people with those 
who have no merit. 

But all this is of the past. There is no longer in existence 
the sore and sensitive public feeling which remained after the 


close of the war. All visitors to North Carolina are emphatic 
in their testimony to the frank and generous spirit with which 
thej are met by all classes. There is no difficulty in engag- 
ing colored laborers in the eastern counties, and in procuring 
any number of workmen required in the greatest enterprises. 
In the central and western part of the State labor is even 
cheaper, and great numbers, who cheaply subsist themselves 
by small farming, are ready to take hold, at very moderate 
wages, of any new work started up among them. 

These white people of the western counties bear a most 
enviable reputation for sobriety and good character generally. 
They are particularly ready to engage in anything that will 
bring money into their country — very moderate wages in 
money go far with them in practical results. There is no 
more effective place to wield ready capital in cutting timber, 
in opening mines, in farming on a large scale, or in any con- 
ceivable pursuit. We trust that not two years more will pass 
without this dormant human power being brought into requi- 
sition, and with it, the vast water power of the great interior 
rivers to which we have before referred. 

In a spirit of wise liberality, several of the railroads have 
arranged to reduce freights and cost of travel by about one- 
half, to all actual purchasers of property who proceed at 
once to occupy and improve what they purchase. AYe have 
before us the " Proceedings of a Convention of the Presidents, 
Superintendents, and other Officials of Southern Railways, for 
the promotion of Immigration to the South, held at Atlanta, 
Georgia, January 4 ; 1869." At this convention all the lead- 
ing roads of the Southern States were represented, and 
although, no absolute rule of a general character could be 
adopted, the understanding was, that each road would, for 
itself, make directly favorable terms for immigrants and 
business enterprises in the district traversed by its line. 
Among the proceedings was a resolution reducing the freight 
on bone-dust, guano, and all manufactured fertilizers, to one 
and one-fourth cents per ton per mile for all distances ; a 
very important item to the agriculturists of all parts of the 
South. The tone of their recommendations in regard to 
ordinary freights and fares, was that, as we have said, each 


road should endeavor to aid actual enterprises by giving 
them the advantage of half freights and half fares for all that 
lay along the line of, or whose business naturally came upon 
any road. As the proper discriminations and distinctions in 
such cases can be known only to the managers of each road 
for all that would relate to its own business, the adjustment 
was, by common consent, left to each to make for itself. We 
are assured that there is great readiness to show liberality in 
this way, particularly on the railroads in North Carolina, and 
we urge, both on the roads to give, and on business men to 
ask and improve the opportunities so afforded. 

A year of liberality to an enterprise for the establishment 
of a mill or manufactory, or for the opening of a mine, might 
turn the scale with a doubting purchaser, and might make a 
purchaser, who would only purchase to hold without im- 
proving, without the offer of some such facilities, decide on 
putting a considerable sum of active capital into use at once. 
The result would be a permanent benefit to all concerned, 
while, if left embarrassed by difficulties of access, there would 
be little or nothing done, and no public good realized. We 
therefore say to both parties, that their highest interest lies 
in liberality — in liberal offers of facilities by those who have 
the control of railroads, and in liberal investments by those 
who control now, or who hereafter purchase these dormant 
properties in lumber tracts, water power, coal and other 
mines, and even the farming lands. 

As some guide to the railroads themselves, as well as a 
proof of the general character of the movement to aid immi- 
grants and business men establishing themselves in the South, 
we give the following list of Roads, Presidents, and Superin- 
tendents participating in the proceeding, or replying favora- 
bly to the circular of invitation : — 

Col. E. Ilulbert, Superintendent of Western and Atlantic 

M. J. Wicks, President Memphis and Charleston Railroad. 

S. K. Johnson, Assistant Superintendent Georgia Railroad. 

E. R. Walker, Master of Transportation Western and At- 
lantic Railroad. 


E. C. Jackson, Superintendent of East Tennessee and 
Georgia Eailroad. 

Horace P. Clark, General Freight Agent of Macon and 
"Western Eailroad. 

D. H. Cram, Superintendent of Montgomery and West 
Point Eailroad. 

L. P. Grant, Superintendent of Atlanta and "West Point 

Col. F. M. White, President of Mississippi and Tennessee 

C. L. Fitch, General Freight and Passenger Agent of Mo- 
bile and Ohio Eailroad. 

Hermann Bokum, Commissioner of Immigration for Ten- 

T. S. Williams, General Superintendent of New Orleans, 
Jackson, and Great Northern Eailroad. 

William S. Holt, President of Southwestern Eailroad. 

A. J. White, President of Macon and Western Eailroad. 

T. L. Montgomery, Secretary of Montgomery and Eufaula 

Thos. Dodamead, Superintendent of Eichmond and Dan- 
ville Eailroad. 

E. F. Eawworth, Superintendent of Vicksburg and Me- 
ridian Eailroad. 

Charles Ellis, President of Eichmond and Petersburg Eail- 

E. Walker, Superintendent of Pensacola and Georgia 

W. S. Cothran, President of Eome Eailroad. 

Thomas B. Jeter, President of Spartanburg and Union 

J. W. Gloss, President of Nashville and Decatur Eailroad. 

J. C. Courtney, Superintendent of Southern Express Co. 

Frank Schaller, State Agent of Immigration for Virginia. 

J. P. Fresemins, Eome, Ga. 

D. M. Hood, Eome, Ga. 

J. A. Billups, Madison, Ga. 

Gen. W. T. Wofford, Cartersville, Ga. 

Col. Sam. Tate, President of Mississippi Central Eailroad. 


C. W. Anderson, General Freight Agent of Nashville and 
Chattanooga, and Nashville and Northwestern Railroad. 

J. M. Selkirk, General Agent of Central Railroad (of Ga.). 

G. Jordan, Superintendent of Montgomery and Mobile 

Maj. Campbell Wallace, Selma and Meridian Railroad, Ga. 

The following report of the committee appointed to pre- 
pare business for the Convention, expresses their wishes and 
feelings so clearly that we transcribe it here : — 

" The committee appointed to prepare business for the Convention, reported 
as follows: — 

" Mr. Chairman : Your committee, in considering the subject referred to them, 
beg leave to state, that fully appreciating its importance in reference to the 
interests of the railways of the South, as well as the general interests of our 
people, would have preferred more time for the consideration of the duty 
assigned them, but have agreed to submit the following recommendations for 
your consideration and action. 

" It is a fact well known to this Convention, that the rate of passenger fare on 
Southern railways is much higher than on those of the Northern and Western 
States, and that in addition to this they have a reduced rate for immigrants, and 
special trains for their accommodation. 

" The great importance of this traffic to them, not only as a source of reve- 
nue, but as the most direct means of increasing their general business, by 
rapidly settling up the lands of the far West, as well as those contiguous to their 
own lines, thereby securing a permanent business, is well understood by them, 
and no effort spared to secure this end. 

" Special agents of the different nationalities, thoroughly competent and trust- 
worthy, are employed, whose duty it is to look after the foreign immigrant upon 
his landing on our shores, and direct his movements over the particular line 
which the agent may represent. 

" Railways in the far West are projected and built upon the single idea of the 
enhancement of the value of lands contiguous thereto, by the flood of immigra- 
tion thus skilfully directed by them to their doors. We should profit by their 

" There is evidently a strong disposition on the part of Northern capitalists to 
invest in the rich mineral lands of the South, in manufactures, and other enter- 
prises. We should encourage this disposition by all the legitimate means in our 

" No richer field for the various enterprises indicated, can be named than that 
of the South. With the immense fields of coal, iron, copper, and marble com- 
paratively undeveloped, her immense water power yet unimproved, with her 
cotton fields in sight of the grain and cattle region, and her genial climate, all 
combined, makes the South the most inviting field for capital, enterprise, and immi- 
gration, now unimproved. 

"It should be our duty to ourselves, as well as those whose interests we 
represent, to bring these facts to the attention of the capitalists, the manufac- 


turers, and the agriculturalists of the Northern States, as well as the foreign immi- 
grant, that at least a portion of this capital, immigration, and ivealth of labor, 
may be drawn to our section. 

" To accomplish this we must publish to the world our extraordinary and 
really wonderful advantages, and the cordial welcome that the South offers to the 
Northern citizen and foreign immigrant. The mere publication of facts will not, 
however, accomplish this end. 

" The capitalist cannot be expected to venture upon an investment until he 
has first seen in person that our representations are true. 

" The manufacturer will not invest his capital with us, building up towns and 
cities, until he has verified our statements by personal observation ; nor will the 
farmer purchase our lands until he has first examined their productiveness. 
Neither will the foreign immigrant come among us until we have convinced him 
of the many advantages we offer him, following up that information by tendering 
him the aid and assistance so freely offered by the enterprise of the North and 

The action of this Convention resulted in the issue of the 
following important circular, and although, by its terms, it is 
limited to July 1, 1869, it is understood that it will be con- 
tinued at least for some months, if not a year later : — 

Circular to Parties desiring to procure Certificates to the South. 

Parties expecting to procure Certificates will be required to conform to the 
following instructions to Agents : — 

The object of the Convention held in Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 4, 1869, as set forth 
in the resolutions and unanimously adopted, is to induce travel south for the 
purpose of investigating the extraordinary opportunities now offered for pro- 
fitable investment in that section. 

It is not contemplated to sell the excursion ticket or certificate to parties 
applying for the same, but simply to issue them when satisfied that the party 
will in good faith comply with the object sought to be attained by the Conven- 
tion, viz. : — 

That of examination for the purpose of investment. 

The presentation of the certificate at the ticket offices of either of the roads 
named as agreeing to the rates, will entitle the holder to purchase tickets at 
two (2) cents per mile. 

Conductors will also recognize the certificate, and pass the party holding the 
same at the stipulated price per mile. 

The certificates will be issued under the following rules: — 

1. When a party is personally known to you, and upon being satisfied that 
his object is in accordance with the purpose of the Convention, you will issue 
the certificate. 

2. When the applicant is unknown to you, you will require him to produce at 
least one respectable citizen, who will vouch for the party desiring to avail him- 
self of the privilege of the certificate. 

3. When the party making application is unknown to you, and himself unac- 
quainted with persons of respectability who can vouch for him, you will then 
permit him to make affidavit as to his purpose, setting forth in the same that 
his intentions are in accordance with that set forth in the resolutions of the 
Convention. State the facts in the blank space in the certificate, and issue the 
same to the applicant. File the Affidavits. 

4. After inserting the name of the applicant in the certificate, state upon 


"what ground the same is issued, also the name of the party or parties who may 
vouch for him. Stamp each certificate with your official stamp. 

5. Use every precaution within your power to prevent fraud being practised 
upon you, and through you upon the roads. 


Chairman Standing Committee. 

After the Agent is satisfied you intend to use the certificate for the purpose 
for which it was issued, you will be presented with one which gives you the 
names of the Roads and Hotels in the South who have agreed to the reduction. 

The Changed System of Labor. 

Up to a recent period, and to some extent during the year 
1867, there remained some soreness on the part of employers, 
and some carelessness of consequences on the part of the 
freedmen, which interfered with the regularity of their work 
in all the counties where dependence must be had upon them, 
But a year later there was a great improvement, and now, in 
1869, the new order of things is as fully established as could 
at any time be expected. There is practically no difficulty in 
engaging permanent labor in any part of the State. All who 
live by labor find the necessity to seek employment quite 
pressing enough to insure the acceptance of reasonable wages, 
by whomsoever offered. 

In the eastern and southern counties generally, the colored 
population is nearly equal to the white, in but very few coun- 
ties being in excess. In some twenty-five counties, including 
Beaufort, Bertie, Bladen, Caswell, Chowan, Craven, Cumber- 
land, Duplin, Edgecombe, Franklin, Gates, Granville, Green, 
Halifax, Hertford, Jones, Lenoir, Nash, New Hanover, North- 
ampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Person, Pitt, Eichmond, 
Sampson, Warren, and Wake, the average is very nearly the 
same of colored and whites. There are no counties in which a 
mass of colored people are found to the exclusion of whites ; 
Halifax, with 10,824 colored and 5765 white, and Warren, 
with 4923 white to 10,803 colored, being the extremest cases. 
And probably the state of things in 1860, from the census of 
which we take these figures, represents a larger number of 
colored than would now be found. 

In the central counties the colored population in 1860 
numbered from one-third to one-fourth of the number of 
white ; while in the mountain counties the number of colored 
was, and is very small. 






































Several counties east of the Blue Ridge have also very few 
colored; particularly Alexander, Surry, "Wilkes, Catawba, 
Polk, &c. 

In the entire State there were, in 1860, 631,100 whites to 
361,512 colored. We can only estimate that there is at least 
a greater number of whites, in proportion, in 1869. 

It is noticeable that fewer conflicts have taken place in 
North Carolina in the course of the recent delicate and diffi- 
cult process of harmonizing life-long differences with a new 
order of things, than in any other State of the South. This 
fortunate result has been due to the sound judgment, and reso- 
lute good, faith with which the responsible white citizens 
have met the emergency. They deserve the good opinion of 
citizens of other States, and they will always be found to un- 
derstand and appreciate a public duty. We can, therefore, 
confidently say to capitalists and business men who go among 
these people to purchase and. improve any properties, that 
they will be met with warm and cordial friendship ; and will 
find, every facility placed within their reach that the country 
can supply. Whatever class constitutes the laboring force of 
the district, fair wages will promptly put it in motion. Trained 
miners, iron-workers, and manufacturers of every class abound 
in the mining and manufacturing counties. In the planting- 
counties the original laboring people remain, and are ready 
to supply every call for cotton or rice planting. In the pine 
lands and the cypress lumbering districts, there are thousands 
of laborers there, mostly colored, who have spent their lives 
in these pursuits, and who are acclimated as well as habituated 
and skilled in the requisite degree. 




Adjacent States. 

In what we have here written we have confined ourselves 
to North Carolina, but much that has been said would apply 
to the adjacent parts of South Carolina particularly, and in 
some degree to Virginia and Tennessee. It is clearly easier 
to enter or leave the central and upper portions of South 
Carolina by way of Wilmington than in any other way, or by 
any other route. The short Wilmington and Manchester 
Eailroad goes to the heart of the State, and at least a large 
area along the northeastern border of South Carolina finds a 
more natural and easy market at Wilmington than anywhere 
else. In the table previously given, showing the trade of 
Wilmington, the quantities are so large as to imply a consider- 
able receipt over this Wilmington & Manchester Eoad from 
adjacent parts of South Carolina. Some of the items were: — 

Cotton, in \i 

Cotton Yarns and Cloths " 

R.ough Rice " 

Rosin, • 

Spirits of turpentine " 

Crude " ' 

Lumber ' 

Timber ' 

Shingle " 

Staves " 

Tar and Pitch " 

31,828 bales. 
759 bales. 
18,447 bushels. 
463,113 barrels. 
94,918 barrels. 
22,343 barrels. 
19,194,662 square feet. 
47,399 cubic feet. 
3,983 M. 
1,145 M. 
47,410 barrels. 

Interested as we are in the general development of the re- 
sources of this part of the South, we chose North Carolina, 
and its commercial representative, Wilmington, as centres and 
points of readiest access. Through them we believe that 
many other districts can be easily reached, and particularly 
to see South Carolina favorably is best accomplished by way 
of Wilmington or Charlotte, North Carolina. 

In Virginia the whole border from Norfolk westward to the 
Mountains is a continuation of the lands we have described 
in North Carolina, namely, the swamp and drained lands of 
the coast, a sandy tract next, but inferior to the magnificent 
North Carolina pine forest; fine tobacco lands along the 
Eoanoke to Danville, at which point a natural centre for 
tobacco production exists, with a standard market.